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高爾夫球 (7850 views - Sports List)

哥爾夫,又稱高球,哥爾夫球,歌爾夫球,高而富球,俗稱小白球,是一種室外體育運動。個人或團體球員以哥爾夫球杆將一顆小球打進果嶺的洞內。使用杆數較少者獲勝。大部份的比賽有9洞或18洞。 目前世界上較為知名的個人比賽有:英國公開賽、英國業餘哥爾夫球錦標賽、美國公開賽、美國業餘哥爾夫球錦標賽、美國名人賽和美國職業哥爾夫球協會錦標賽。最有名的團體比賽有世界盃賽、萊德杯歐美對抗賽和沃克杯美英愛爾蘭系列賽。哥爾夫球將於2016年里約熱內盧奧運重新被列為奧運比賽專案。 英國公開賽、美國公開賽、美國名人賽和美國職業哥爾夫球協會錦標賽是哥爾夫球界的四大大滿貫賽事。 一般認為現代哥爾夫球起源於15世紀的蘇格蘭,今日的哥爾夫球18洞制度亦由蘇格蘭制定,當地亦有全球最歷史悠久的高球會,被視作蘇格蘭國粹
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Explanation by Hotspot Model

高爾夫球

高爾夫球

哥爾夫
最高管理机构 R&A
USGA
國際哥爾夫總會
起源 15世紀, 蘇格蘭
特征
是否身体接触
分类 室外
设备 哥爾夫球杆哥爾夫球
何时加入奥运会 190019042016,[1] 2020[2]
「golf」的各地常用別名
中国大陸 高尔夫
臺灣 高爾夫
港澳 高爾夫

哥爾夫,又稱高球哥爾夫球歌爾夫球高而富球,俗稱小白球,是一種室外體育運動。個人或團體球員以哥爾夫球杆將一顆小球打進果嶺的洞內。使用杆數較少者獲勝。大部份的比賽有9洞或18洞。

目前世界上較為知名的個人比賽有:英國公開賽英國業餘哥爾夫球錦標賽英语The Amateur Championship美國公開賽美國業餘哥爾夫球錦標賽英语United States Amateur Championship (golf)美國名人賽美國職業哥爾夫球協會錦標賽。最有名的團體比賽有世界盃賽萊德杯歐美對抗賽沃克杯美英愛爾蘭系列賽英语Walker Cup。哥爾夫球將於2016年里約熱內盧奧運重新被列為奧運比賽專案。

英國公開賽美國公開賽美國名人賽美國職業哥爾夫球協會錦標賽是哥爾夫球界的四大大滿貫賽事[3]

一般認為現代哥爾夫球起源於15世紀的蘇格蘭[4],今日的哥爾夫球18洞制度亦由蘇格蘭制定,當地亦有全球最歷史悠久的高球會,被視作蘇格蘭國粹

高尔夫球場

高尔夫球場是由許多的球洞組成,每一個球洞都有發球台英语Teeing ground,發球台前會有二個標誌說明發球台的範圍,此外還有球道長草、其他障礙英语Hazard (golf)、在球洞附近的果嶺、球洞及標示球洞位置的旗子。

高尔夫球場長草的程度會影響比賽的難度,在果嶺附近的草會特別養護,以便球可以在草地上滾動。有些球洞可以從發球台直接看到球洞,但有些則會設計為左彎或是右彎,類似狗的腿,因此稱為「狗腿洞」,有些球洞甚至在中間會有二次的彎曲,稱為「雙狗腿洞」。

標準的高尔夫球場會有18個球洞,不過9個球洞的球場也很常見,18個球洞可以用9個球洞重複二次來達到[5][6]

早期的蘇格蘭高尔夫球場主要會在有土壤及草的海邊沙地進行[7]。世界第一座高爾夫球場位於蘇格蘭聖安德魯斯成立於1452年。美國第一個18洞的球場是在1892年成立,是在伊利諾州唐納斯格羅夫英语Downers Grove, Illinois的綿羊牧場內,這個球場仍可使用[8]

高尔夫各球洞因地形變化而出現不等的距離,通常將此不等的距離分成:長,中,短三種。十八個球洞中,長,短距離的球洞各有四個,中等距離的球洞有十個,採混合式排列,一個球場大部分平均會分佈水池(下水罰杆一杆),界外球OB(out of bounds 罰杆兩杆),OB線旁會豎立白色木樁,球洞部份可分為長草區、球道區、沙坑等,各個球場有自訂另行規則。

球場的球洞分部大部分為有:4個三杆洞,10個四杆洞,4個五杆洞,球杆的標準為不超過14枝球杆為上限,一般球友多會使用一枝開球木杆,兩支球道木杆,九支鐵杆,一枝推杆以及一枝特殊用途的球杆。

不同距離的標準杆數:431米以上為5杆,430.9米至229.1米為4杆,229米以下為3杆,球場標準杆的設定,依據球道的整體距離與分配做設定,通常是18洞72杆,偶爾也會有70杆或71杆的球場。高尔夫的職業比賽中,通常一場比賽要比四個回合,女子組通常是三個回合。

果岭

果岭英语:putting green)是green的音译

果嶺的品質並不是相同的。一般來說,最好的果嶺都是得到很好養護,使得球可以很平滑的貼著切割過的草坪上滾動。哥爾夫愛好者一般把好的果嶺描述為faster(快的),輕輕的一擊球就可以在上面滾動很遠。相對的,如果球在上面滾動相當的距離需要很大的力氣去擊球,這樣的果嶺稱為slow(慢的)(視果嶺的草種以及長短,生長方向而決定果嶺的快慢)由於果嶺的地形高低起伏會讓打者感覺其困難度。

测定果岭球速时,先在果岭上选定3m×3m之区域,再将球置于球速测定器(stimp meter)凹槽中确定球是否会滚动。再测定是否受坡度影响,如受坡度影响则测上坡滚动距离(Su)及下坡滚动距离(Sd),测定之果岭球速(Green speed adjusted for slope effect)=2×(Su×Sd)/(Su+Sd)。一般果岭都有一定的坡度,只是坡度大小存在差异。

得分

標準桿

球洞會依標準桿來分類,標準桿是指球員根據設計應當完成的桿數[5]。桿數中一定會包括發球的一桿及二個推桿,因此標準桿至少是三桿,但標準桿是四桿或五桿的球洞也很常見,甚至也有標準桿是六桿或七桿的球洞。發球以外的擊球以及推桿一般會在球道進行。例如一個有經驗的球員在標準桿四桿的球洞時,會希望在第一次擊球發球後,第二次擊球就可以將球擊到果嶺,再用二個推桿使球進洞,就可以平標準桿。若是擊球讓球上果嶺後,還留有二次推桿機會可以使球進洞,則稱為标准杆上果岭(green in regulation),簡稱GIR[9]

計分 術語 定義
-4 Condor或Triple eagle(三鷹) 少標準桿數四桿(事實上是不存在的)
-3 Albatross或Golden eagle或Double eagle(雙鷹 少標準桿數三桿
-2 Eagle(老鷹) 少標準桿數兩桿
-1 Birdie(小鳥 少標準桿數一桿
E Par(標準桿 平標準桿數
+1 Bogey(柏忌) 多標準桿數一桿
+2 Double Bogey(雙柏忌) 多標準桿數兩桿
+3 Triple Bogey(三柏忌) 多標準桿數三桿
+4 Quadruple Bogey(四柏忌) 多標準桿數四桿

哥爾夫電影

高爾夫雜誌

哥爾夫職業

相關條目

外部链接

参考文献

  1. ^ Olympic sports of the past. Olympic Movement. [29 March 2009]. 
  2. ^ Associated Press file. Golf, rugby make Olympic roster for 2016, 2020. cleveland.com. 9 October 2009 [23 September 2010]. 
  3. ^ 哥爾夫四大滿貫賽事介紹. 哥爾夫讀者. 2009-07-30 [2014-02-04] (中文). 
  4. ^ 哥爾夫球的起源與演變. 環球哥爾夫. 2009-01-30 [2014-02-04] (中文). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Golf. Encarta. [2007-12-20]. (原始内容存档于31 October 2009). 
  6. ^ Hill den Park – 9 Hole Golf Course. hilden park.co.uk. [20 December 2007]. (原始内容存档于2007-12-22). 
  7. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary definition of the word Links. Etymonline.com. [2010-09-23]. 
  8. ^ Why Does Golf Have 18 Holes?. [6 May 2010]. 
  9. ^ Kelley, Brent. Definition of Par. About.com. [2007-11-08]. 


This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "高爾夫球", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

Sports List

Air sports
• Aerobatics
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Wingsuit flying
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Acro sports
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Performance sports
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Catch games
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Climbing

• Abseiling
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Cycling

• Artistic cycling
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• Cycle polo
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Skibob
• Skibobbing

Unicycle

• Mountain unicycling
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Combat sports: wrestling and martial arts
• Aiki-jūjutsu
• Aikido
• Jujutsu
• Judo
• Brazilian jiu-jitsu
• Sambo (martial art)
• Sumo
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• Amateur wrestling
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• Boli Khela
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• Dumog
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Striking

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Mixed or hybrid
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• Shorinji Kempo
• Systema
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• Zen Bu Kan Kempo

Weapons
• Axe throwing
• Battōjutsu
• Boffer fighting
• Eskrima
• Egyptian stick fencing
• Fencing
• Gatka
• Hojōjutsu
• Iaidō
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• Naginatajutsu
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• Okinawan kobudō
• Shurikenjutsu
• Silambam
• Sōjutsu
• Sword fighting
• Wushu
• Kumdo
• Wing Chun


Skirmish
• Airsoft
• Laser tag
• Paintball


Cue sports
• Carom billiards
• Three-cushion
• Five-pins
• Balkline and straight rail
• Cushion caroms
• Four-ball (yotsudama)
• Artistic billiards
• Novuss (and cued forms of carrom)
• Pocket billiards (pool)
• Eight-ball
• Blackball (a.k.a. British eight-ball pool)
• Nine-ball
• Straight pool (14.1 continuous)
• One-pocket
• Three-ball
• Seven-ball
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• Rotation
• Baseball pocket billiards
• Cribbage (pool)
• Bank pool
• Artistic pool
• Trick shot competition
• Speed pool
• Bowlliards
• Chicago
• Kelly pool
• Cutthroat
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• Russian pyramid
• Snooker
• Sinuca brasileira
• Six-red snooker
• Snooker plus
• Hybrid carom–pocket games
• English billiards
• Bottle pool
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• Obstacle variations
• Bagatelle
• Bar billiards
• Bumper pool
• Table Sports
• Foosball


Equine sports
• Buzkashi
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• Hunter-jumpers
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• Pato
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• Rodeo
• Show jumping
• Steeplechase
• Team penning
• Tent pegging
• Western pleasure


Fishing
• Angling
• Big-game fishing
• Casting
• Noodling
• Spearfishing
• Sport fishing
• Surf fishing
• Rock fishing
• Fly fishing
• Ice fishing

Flying disc sports

• Beach ultimate
• Disc dog
• Disc golf
• Disc golf (urban)
• Dodge disc
• Double disc court
• Flutterguts
• Freestyle
• Freestyle competition
• Goaltimate
• Guts
• Hot box
• Ultimate

Football

• Ancient games
• Chinlone
• Cuju
• Episkyros
• Harpastum
• Kemari
• Ki-o-rahi
• Marn Grook
• Woggabaliri
• Yubi lakpi
• Medieval football
• Ba game
• Caid
• Calcio Fiorentino
• Camping (game)
• Chester-le-Street
• Cnapan
• Cornish hurling
• Haxey Hood
• Knattleikr
• La soule
• Lelo burti
• Mob football
• Royal Shrovetide Football
• Uppies and Downies
• Association football
• Jorkyball
• Paralympic football
• Powerchair Football
• Reduced variants
• Five-a-side football
• Beach soccer
• Futebol de Salão
• Futsal
• Papi fut
• Indoor soccer
• Masters Football
• Street football
• Freestyle football
• Keepie uppie
• Swamp football
• Three sided football
• Australian football
• Nine-a-side footy
• Rec footy
• Metro footy
• English school games
• Eton College
• Field game
• Wall game
• Harrow football
• Gaelic football
• Ladies' Gaelic football
• Gridiron football
• American football
• Eight-man football
• Flag football
• Indoor football
• Arena football
• Nine-man football
• Six-man football
• Sprint football
• Touch football
• Canadian football
• Street football (American)
• Rugby football
• Beach rugby
• Rugby league
• Masters Rugby League
• Mod league
• Rugby league nines
• Rugby league sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch football
• Wheelchair rugby league
• Rugby union
• American flag rugby
• Mini rugby
• Rugby sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch rugby
• Rugby tens
• Snow rugby
• Hybrid codes
• Austus
• Eton wall game
• International rules football
• Samoa rules
• Speedball
• Universal football
• Volata


Golf

• Miniature golf
• Match play
• Skins game
• Speed golf
• Stroke play
• Team play
• Shotgun start

Gymnastics

• Acrobatic gymnastics
• Aerobic gymnastics
• Artistic gymnastics
• Balance beam
• Floor
• High bar
• Parallel bars
• Pommel horse
• Still rings
• Uneven bars
• Vault
• Juggling
• Rhythmic gymnastics
• Ball
• Club
• Hoop
• Ribbon
• Rope
• Rope jumping
• Slacklining
• Trampolining
• Trapeze
• Flying trapeze
• Static trapeze
• Tumbling

Handball family
• Goalball
• Hitbal
• Tchoukball
• Team handball
• Beach handball
• Czech handball
• Field handball
• Torball
• Water polo

Hunting

• Beagling
• Big game hunting
• Deer hunting
• Fox hunting
• Hare coursing
• Wolf hunting

Ice sports
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Curling
• Ice hockey
• Ringette
• Ice yachting
• Figure skating


Kite sports
• Kite buggy
• Kite fighting
• Kite landboarding
• Kitesurfing
• Parasailing
• Snow kiting
• Sport kite (Stunt kite)

Mixed discipline
• Adventure racing
• Biathlon
• Duathlon
• Decathlon
• Heptathlon
• Icosathlon
• Modern pentathlon
• Pentathlon
• Tetrathlon
• Triathlon

Orienteering family
• Geocaching
• Orienteering
• Rogaining
• Letterboxing
• Waymarking

Pilota family
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Jai alai
• Fives
• Eton Fives
• Rugby Fives
• Frisian handball
• Four square
• Gaelic handball
• Jeu de paume
• Palla
• Patball
• Valencian pilota

Racquet (or racket) sports
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Basque pelota
• Frontenis
• Xare
• Beach tennis
• Fives
• Matkot
• Padel
• Paleta Frontón
• Pelota mixteca
• Pickleball
• Platform tennis
• Qianball
• Racketlon
• Racquetball
• Racquets
• Real tennis
• Soft tennis
• Speed-ball
• Speedminton
• Squash
• Hardball squash
• Squash tennis
• Stické
• Table tennis
• Tennis
Remote control
• Model aerobatics
• RC racing
• Robot combat
• Slot car racing

Rodeo-originated
• Bullriding
• Barrel Racing
• Bronc Riding
• Saddle Bronc Riding
• Roping
• Calf Roping
• Team Roping
• Steer Wrestling
• Goat Tying

Running
• Endurance
• 5K run
• 10K run
• Cross-country running
• Half marathon
• Marathon
• Road running
• Tower running
• Ultramarathon
• Sprint
• Hurdles

Sailing / Windsurfing
• Ice yachting
• Land sailing
• Land windsurfing
• Sailing
• Windsurfing
• Kiteboarding
• Dinghy sailing

Snow sports
• Alpine skiing
• Freestyle skiing
• Nordic combined
• Nordic skiing
• Cross-country skiing
• Telemark skiing
• Ski jumping
• Ski touring
• Skijoring
• Speed skiing

Sled sports

• Bobsleigh
• Luge
• Skibobbing
• Skeleton
• Toboggan

Shooting sports
• Clay pigeon shooting
• Skeet shooting
• Trap shooting
• Sporting clays
• Target shooting
• Field target
• Fullbore target rifle
• High power rifle
• Benchrest shooting
• Metallic silhouette
• Practical shooting
• Cowboy action shooting
• Metallic silhouette shooting
Stacking
• Card stacking
• Dice stacking
• Sport stacking

Stick and ball games
• Hornussen

Hockey
• Hockey
• Ball hockey
• Bando
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Moscow broomball
• Field hockey
• Indoor field hockey
• Floorball
• Ice hockey

Ice hockey 
 • Pond hockey
• Power hockey
• Ringette
• Sledge hockey
• Underwater ice hockey
• Roller hockey
• Inline hockey
• Roller hockey (Quad)
• Skater hockey
• Rossall Hockey
• Spongee
• Street hockey
• Underwater hockey
• Unicycle hockey

Hurling and shinty
• Cammag
• Hurling
• Camogie
• Shinty
• Composite rules shinty-hurling

Lacrosse
• Lacrosse
• Box lacrosse
• Field lacrosse
• Women's lacrosse
• Intercrosse


Polo
• Polo
 • Bicycle polo
• Canoe polo
• Cowboy polo
• Elephant polo
• Horse polo
• Segway polo
• Yak polo

Street sports
• Free running
• Freestyle footbag
• Freestyle football
• Powerbocking
• Parkour
• Scootering
• Street workout

Tag games

• British bulldogs (American Eagle)
• Capture the flag
• Hana Ichi Monme
• Hide and seek
• Jugger
• Kabaddi
• Kho kho
• Kick the can
• Oztag
• Red rover
• Tag

Walking
• Hiking
• Backpacking (wilderness)
• Racewalking
• Bushwhacking
• Walking

Wall-and-ball
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Butts Up
• Chinese handball
• Fives
• Gaelic handball
• International fronton
• Jorkyball
• Racquetball
• Squash
• Squash tennis
• Suicide (game)
• Valencian frontó
• Wallball
• Wallyball

Aquatic & paddle sports
• Creeking
• Flyak
• Freeboating
• Sea kayaking
• Squirt boating
• Surf kayaking
• Whitewater kayaking

Rafting
• Rafting
• White water rafting

Rowing
• Rowing (sport)
• Gig racing
• Coastal and ocean rowing
• Surfboat
• Single scull
Other paddling sports
• Dragon boat racing
• Stand up paddle boarding
• Water polo
• Canoe polo
• Waboba

Underwater
• Underwater football
• Underwater rugby
• Underwater hockey

Competitive swimming
• Backstroke
• Breaststroke
• Butterfly stroke
• Freestyle swimming
• Individual medley
• Synchronized swimming
• Medley relay

Kindred activities
• Bifins (finswimming)
• Surface finswimming

Subsurface and recreational
• Apnoea finswimming
• Aquathlon (underwater wrestling)
• Freediving
• Immersion finswimming
• Scuba diving
• Spearfishing
• Snorkelling
• Sport diving (sport)
• Underwater hockey
• Underwater orienteering
• Underwater photography (sport)
• Underwater target shooting
Diving
• Cliff diving
• Diving

Weightlifting
• Basque traditional weightlifting
• Bodybuilding
• Highland games
• Olympic weightlifting
• Powerlifting
• Strength athletics (strongman)
• Steinstossen

Motorized sports
• Autocross (a.k.a. Slalom)
• Autograss
• Banger racing
• Board track racing
• Demolition derby
• Desert racing
• Dirt track racing
• Drag racing
• Drifting
• Folkrace
• Formula racing
• Formula Libre
• Formula Student
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Kart racing
• Land speed records
• Legends car racing
• Midget car racing
• Monster truck
• Mud bogging
• Off-road racing
• Pickup truck racing
• Production car racing
• Race of Champions
• Rally raid
• Rallycross
• Rallying
• Regularity rally
• Road racing
• Short track motor racing
• Snowmobile racing
• Sports car racing
• Sprint car racing
• Street racing
• Stock car racing
• Time attack
• Tractor pulling
• Touring car racing
• Truck racing
• Vintage racing
• Wheelstand competition

Motorboat racing
• Drag boat racing
• F1 powerboat racing
• Hydroplane racing
• Jet sprint boat racing
• Offshore powerboat racing
• Personal water craft

Motorcycle racing
• Auto Race
• Board track racing
• Cross-country rally
• Endurance racing
• Enduro
• Freestyle motocross
• Grand Prix motorcycle racing
• Grasstrack
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Ice speedway
• Indoor enduro
• Motocross
• Motorcycle drag racing
• Motorcycle speedway
• Off-roading
• Rally raid
• Road racing
• Superbike racing
• Supercross
• Supermoto
• Supersport racing
• Superside
• Track racing
• Trial
• TT racing
• Free-style moto

Marker sports
• Airsoft
• Archery
• Paintball
• Darts

Musical sports
• Color guard
• Drum corps
• Indoor percussion
• Marching band

Fantasy sports
• Quidditch
• Hunger Games(Gladiating)
• Pod Racing
• Mortal Kombat(MMA)

Other
• Stihl Timbersports Series
• Woodsman

Overlapping sports
• Tennis
• Polocrosse
• Badminton
• Polo

Skating sports
• Aggressive inline skating
• Artistic roller skating
• Figure skating
• Freestyle slalom skating
• Ice dancing
• Ice skating
• Inline speed skating
• Rinkball
• Rink hockey
• Roller derby
• Roller skating
• Short track speed skating
• Skater hockey
• Speed skating
• Synchronized skating

Freestyle skiing
• Snowboarding
• Ski flying
• Skibob
• Snowshoeing
• Skiboarding