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White metal (6268 views - Material Database)

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type. A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F). In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly. During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m
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White metal

White metal

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type.

A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F).

In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly.

During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys such as Babbitt metal have a low melting point that is ideal for use as solder, but these alloys also have ideal characteristics for plain bearings. Most importantly for bearings, the material should be hard and wear-resistant and have a low coefficient of friction. It must also be shock-resistant, tough and sufficiently ductile to allow for slight misalignment prior to running-in.

Pure metals are soft, tough and ductile with a high coefficient of friction. Intermetallic compounds are hard and wear-resistant but brittle. By themselves, these do not make ideal bearing materials.

Alloys consist of small particles of a hard compound embedded in the tough, ductile background of a solid solution. In service the latter can wear away slightly leaving the hard compound to carry the load. This wear also provides channels to allow in lubricant (oils). All bearing metals contain antimony (Sb) which forms hard cubic crystals.

 % Sn  % Sb  % Cu  % Pb Applications
93 3.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine big end bearings
86 10.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine main bearings
80 11 3.0 6 General purpose heavy bearings (lead increases plasticity)
60 10 28.5 1.5 Heavy duty marine engine bearings, electrical machines
40 10 1.5 48.5 Low cost, general purpose, medium duty bearings

See also


41xx steelAL-6XNAlGaAlloy 20鋁鎳鈷合金Alumel鋁合金Aluminium bronzeAluminium-lithium alloy汞齊Argentium sterling silverArsenical bronzeArsenical copper巴氏合金Bell metalBeryllium copperBillon (alloy)BirmabrightBismanol黃銅BrightrayBritannia metalBritannia silver青铜Bulat steelCalamine brass铸铁CelestriumChinese silverChromelChromium hydride白金 (合金)康銅氢化亚铜Copper–tungstenCorinthian bronzeCrown goldCrucible steelCunife白铜Cymbal alloys大馬士革鋼Devarda's alloyDoré bullion杜拉鋁Dutch metal电工钢琥珀金Elektron (alloy)ElinvarFernicoFerroalloyFerroceriumFerrochromeFerromanganeseFerromolybdenumFerrosiliconFerrotitaniumFerrouraniumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolGalinstanGilding metal玻璃GlucydurGoloidGuanín (bronze)Gum metalGunmetalHaynes InternationalHepatizonHiduminium高速鋼High-strength low-alloy steelHydronalium英高鎳合金不變鋼Iron–hydrogen alloyItalmaKanthal (alloy)Kovar镁铝合金Magnox (alloy)MangalloyManganin马氏体时效钢Marine grade stainless马氏体不锈钢MegalliumMelchior (alloy)MercuryMischmetalMolybdochalkosMonelΜ合金Muntz metalMushet steelNichromeNickel hydrideNickel silverNickel titaniumNicrosilNisil北歐金Ormolu透磁合金PewterPhosphor bronze生鐵Pinchbeck (alloy)塑料Platinum sterlingPlexiglasPlutonium–gallium alloyPseudo palladiumQueen's metalReynolds 531銠金礦Rose's metal釤鈷磁鐵Sanicro 28Scandium hydrideShakudōShibuichiSilver steel钠钾合金銲料Speculum metalSpiegeleisenSpring steelStaballoy不鏽鋼StelliteSterling silver钢结构超導磁率合金Surgical stainless steelTerfenol-DTerneTibetan silverTitanium alloyTi Beta-C.Titanium gold氢化钛氮化钛TombacTool steelTumbagaType metal維塔立合金耐候钢伍德合金烏茲鋼Y alloyZeron 100氢化铀ZamakZirconium hydride甲烷Mezzanine原子珩磨金屬加工材料科学Ironworks

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