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Spring steel (12982 views - Material Database)

Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy Manganese, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.
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Spring steel

Spring steel

Spring steel

Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 se (Riksantikvarieämbetet / Pål-Nils Nilsson, CC-BY).

Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels[1] used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy Manganese, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.

Grades

Many grades of steel can be hardened and tempered to suit application as a spring; however, some steels exhibit more desirable characteristics for spring applications.

Common spring steel grades
SAE grade
(ASTM grade)
Composition Yield strength Hardness (HRC) Comments
Typical Maximum
1074/1075[2] 0.70–0.80% C, 0.50–0.80% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[3] 62–78 ksi (430–530 MPa)[4] 44–50[5] 50 Scaleless blue steel
1080 (A228) 0.7–1.0% C, 0.2–0.6% Mn, 0.1–0.3% Si[6] Piano wire, music wire
1095 (A684)[2] 0.90–1.03% C, 0.30–0.50% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[7] 60–75 ksi (413–517 MPa), annealed 48–51[5] 59 Blue spring steel
5160 (A689)[8] 0.55–0.65% C, 0.75–1.00% Mn, 0.70–0.90% Cr[9] 97 ksi (669 MPa) 63 Chrome-silicon spring steel; fatigue-resistant
50CrV4 (EN 10277) 0.47–0.55% C, max. 1.10% Mn, 0.90–1.20% Cr, 0.10–0.20% V, max. 0.40% Si 1200 MPa Old British 735 steel
9255 0.50–0.60% C, 0.70–0.95% Mn, 1.80–2.20% Si[9]
301 spring-tempered
stainless steel [10]
0.08–0.15% C, max. 2.00% Mn, 16.00–18.00% Cr, 6.00–8.00% Ni[9] 147 ksi (1014 MPa) 42

Applications

  • Applications include piano wire (also known as[11] music wire) such as ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon), spring clamps, antennas, springs, and vehicle coil springs, leaf springs, and s-tines.
  • Spring steel is also commonly used in the manufacture of metal swords both historically and for stage combat due to its resistance to bending, snapping or shattering.[dubious ]
  • Spring steel is one of the most popular materials used in the fabrication of lockpicks due to its pliability and resilience.
  • Tubular spring steel is used in the landing gear of some small aircraft due to its ability to absorb the impact of landing.
  • It is also commonly used in the making of knives, especially for the Nepalese kukri.
  • It is used in binder clips.

See also


41xx steelAlGa鋁鎳鈷合金鋁合金Aluminium bronzeAluminium-lithium alloyArsenical bronzeArsenical copperBell metalBeryllium copperBillon (alloy)BirmabrightBismanol黃銅青铜Bulat steelCalamine brass铸铁Chinese silverChromium hydride白金 (合金)康銅氢化亚铜Copper–tungstenCorinthian bronzeCrown goldCrucible steelCunife白铜Cymbal alloys大馬士革鋼Devarda's alloy杜拉鋁Dutch metal电工钢琥珀金ElinvarFernicoFerroalloyFerroceriumFerrochromeFerromanganeseFerromolybdenumFerrosiliconFerrotitaniumFerrouraniumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolGalinstanGilding metal玻璃GlucydurGuanín (bronze)GunmetalHepatizonHiduminium高速鋼High-strength low-alloy steelHydronalium不變鋼Iron–hydrogen alloyItalmaKanthal (alloy)Kovar镁铝合金MangalloyManganin马氏体时效钢MegalliumMelchior (alloy)MercuryMolybdochalkosMuntz metalMushet steelNichromeNickel silver北歐金OrmoluPhosphor bronze生鐵Pinchbeck (alloy)塑料PlexiglasReynolds 531銠金礦Rose's metalShakudōSpeculum metalSpiegeleisenStaballoy不鏽鋼Stellite钢结构TombacTumbaga維塔立合金伍德合金Y alloyAL-6XNCelestriumAlloy 20Marine grade stainless马氏体不锈钢Sanicro 28Surgical stainless steelZeron 100Silver steelTool steel耐候钢烏茲鋼銲料TerneType metalElektron (alloy)汞齊Magnox (alloy)AlumelBrightrayChromelHaynes International英高鎳合金MonelNicrosilNisilNickel titaniumΜ合金透磁合金超導磁率合金Nickel hydridePlutonium–gallium alloy钠钾合金MischmetalTerfenol-DPseudo palladiumScandium hydride釤鈷磁鐵Argentium sterling silverBritannia silverDoré bullionGoloidPlatinum sterlingShibuichiSterling silverTibetan silverTi Beta-C.Titanium alloy氢化钛Gum metalTitanium gold氮化钛巴氏合金Britannia metalPewterQueen's metalWhite metal氢化铀ZamakZirconium hydride甲烷Mezzanine原子Leaf spring底盘煉鋼廠高爐材料科学Ironworks

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