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拳击 (11705 views - Sports List)

拳擊(英语:boxing;日語:拳闘、ボクシング),別名西洋拳,是一項兩位選手使用拳頭並佩戴戴拳击手套进進行攻擊與防禦的體育運動,具有悠久的歷史。
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拳击

拳击

拳击

拳擊英语:boxing日語拳闘ボクシング),別名西洋拳,是一項兩位選手使用拳頭並佩戴戴拳击手套进進行攻擊與防禦的體育運動,具有悠久的歷史。

歷史

拳擊和射箭都是人類古時的生存技巧,原始人用以強健體魄而可以於惡劣的環境之下生存。弓未面世前,人類要以拳頭來自衛。這是拳擊的雛形。最早見於歷史記載是公元前4世紀的埃及。

而在古代奧運中,拳擊運動就已經是比賽項目之一。1896年,第一屆夏季奧運中,由於希臘喬治一世認為拳擊太為暴力、危險而且不為人道,因此不批准拳擊列入該屆的比賽項目之一。

1881年,英國業餘拳擊協會成立,拳擊開始傳到世界各地。到第三屆夏季奧運男子拳擊正式被列入比賽項目之一,但在1912年斯德哥爾摩奧運中,由於瑞典法律不准許拳擊運動,因此一度消失了。1920年,拳擊運動再次列入奧運比賽項目的名單之中,一直到現在。香港拳擊總會於1955年成立,是國際業餘拳擊協會(AIBA)成員之一,近年來香港選手在女子及青少年國際賽事中均能多次獲得獎牌。

目前為止,國際業餘拳擊協會的成員共為一百九十多個國家或地區。與此同時,第一屆世界盃女子拳擊錦標賽也於1999年在芬蘭舉行。

規則

拳擊運動分為業餘拳擊以及職業拳擊。

業餘拳擊

業餘拳擊是18歲以上,1回合3分鐘,高中生1回合2分鐘。在日本比賽時通常是3回合,不過國際比賽也有縮短為1回合2分鐘並進行4回合的比賽。但是為在2009年1月時國際業餘比賽被統一為3分鐘3回合。 雙方選手要帶上頭盔、10OZ拳套(大會提供),口咬防止受傷的護齒,穿著護襠(男性),5位裁判1回合判給贏的10分輸的9分最後抽3組分數加起來贏得2組分數以上,或擊倒對手,的為勝利者。如果對手1回合中被強制讀秒3次跟屢計4次讀秒裁判可中止比賽

  • 在2016年奥运会上,拳击比赛的头盔不再会出现。

職業拳擊

比賽形式採用回合制,有4回合、5回合、6回合、8回合、10回合、12回合六種。回合數依據選手的證照來決定。不過會實行12回合,也只有東洋太平洋錦標賽與世界錦標賽的時候。 雙方選手使用8~10OZ拳套(賽前雙方議定),口咬防止受傷的護齒,進行3分鐘一回合的對賽。

階級

業餘拳擊

國際業餘拳擊聯盟所制定的階級如下(但是蚊量級只限於Jr.選手)。全12階級。

階級名稱 體重(Kilogramme/Kg)
超重量級(Super heavy) 91kg以上
重量級(Heavy) 81-91kg
輕重量級(Light heavy) 75-81kg
中量級(Middle) 69-75kg
沉量級(Welter) 64-69kg
輕沉量級(Light welter) 60-64kg
輕量級(Light) 57-60kg
羽量級(Feather) 54-57kg
雛量級(Bantam) 51-54kg
蠅量級(Fly) 48-51kg
輕蠅量級(Light fly) 到48kg
蚊量級【只限於Jr.】(Mosquito) 到45kg

女子比賽的階級如下。全13階級。

階級名稱 體重(Kilogramme/Kg)
重量級(Heavy) 80-86kg
輕重量級(Light heavy) 75-80kg
中量級(Middle) 70-75kg
輕中量級(Light Middle) 66-70kg
沉量級(Welter) 63-66kg
輕沉量級(Light welter) 60-63kg
輕量級(Light) 57-60kg
羽量級(Feather) 54-57kg
雛量級(Bantam) 52-54kg
輕雛量級(Light Bantam) 50-52kg
蠅量級(Fly) 48-50kg
輕蠅量級(Light fly) 46-48kg
別針級(Pin) 46kg

職業拳擊

職業拳擊的階級如下。全17階級。

階級名稱 體重(Kilogramme/Kg) 體重(Pound/lbs)
重量級(Heavy) 90.719kg以上 200lbs以上
巡洋艦級(Cruiser)/重量級Jr.(Heavy Jr.) 90.719kg 200lbs
次重量級(Light heavy) 79.379kg 175lbs
超中量級(Super middle) 76.204kg 168lbs
中量級(Middle) 72.575kg 160lbs
超次中量級(Super welter)/中量級Jr.(Middle Jr.) 69.853kg 154lbs
次中量級(Welter) 66.678kg 147lbs
超級輕量級(Super Light)/沉量級Jr.(Welter Jr.) 63.503kg 140lbs
輕量級(Light) 61.235kg 135lbs
超級羽量級(Super feather)/輕量級Jr.(Light Jr.) 58.967kg 130lbs
羽量級(Feather) 57.153kg 126lbs
超級雛量級(Super bantam)/羽量級Jr.(Feather Jr.) 55.338kg 122lbs
雛量級(Bantam) 53.524kg 118lbs
超級蠅量級(Super fly)/雛量級Jr.(Bantam Jr.) 52.163kg 115lbs
蠅量級(Fly) 50.802kg 112lbs
次蠅量級(Light fly)/蠅量級Jr.(Fly Jr.) 48.988kg 108lbs
極小量級(Minimun)/稻草級(Straw)/微小蠅級(Mini fly) 47.627kg 105lbs

著名選手

美國

英國

尼加拉瓜

俄羅斯

烏克蘭

烏茲別克斯坦

波多黎各

日本

香港

  • 曹星如 (1987年-),超蠅量級(115磅)。

薩摩亞群島

菲律賓

中國

  • 邹市明《1981年5月18日-》
  • 黃俊皓《2000年1月1日-》

拳擊組織

外部連結



This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "拳击", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

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• Banger racing
• Board track racing
• Demolition derby
• Desert racing
• Dirt track racing
• Drag racing
• Drifting
• Folkrace
• Formula racing
• Formula Libre
• Formula Student
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Kart racing
• Land speed records
• Legends car racing
• Midget car racing
• Monster truck
• Mud bogging
• Off-road racing
• Pickup truck racing
• Production car racing
• Race of Champions
• Rally raid
• Rallycross
• Rallying
• Regularity rally
• Road racing
• Short track motor racing
• Snowmobile racing
• Sports car racing
• Sprint car racing
• Street racing
• Stock car racing
• Time attack
• Tractor pulling
• Touring car racing
• Truck racing
• Vintage racing
• Wheelstand competition

Motorboat racing
• Drag boat racing
• F1 powerboat racing
• Hydroplane racing
• Jet sprint boat racing
• Offshore powerboat racing
• Personal water craft

Motorcycle racing
• Auto Race
• Board track racing
• Cross-country rally
• Endurance racing
• Enduro
• Freestyle motocross
• Grand Prix motorcycle racing
• Grasstrack
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Ice speedway
• Indoor enduro
• Motocross
• Motorcycle drag racing
• Motorcycle speedway
• Off-roading
• Rally raid
• Road racing
• Superbike racing
• Supercross
• Supermoto
• Supersport racing
• Superside
• Track racing
• Trial
• TT racing
• Free-style moto

Marker sports
• Airsoft
• Archery
• Paintball
• Darts

Musical sports
• Color guard
• Drum corps
• Indoor percussion
• Marching band

Fantasy sports
• Quidditch
• Hunger Games(Gladiating)
• Pod Racing
• Mortal Kombat(MMA)

Other
• Stihl Timbersports Series
• Woodsman

Overlapping sports
• Tennis
• Polocrosse
• Badminton
• Polo

Skating sports
• Aggressive inline skating
• Artistic roller skating
• Figure skating
• Freestyle slalom skating
• Ice dancing
• Ice skating
• Inline speed skating
• Rinkball
• Rink hockey
• Roller derby
• Roller skating
• Short track speed skating
• Skater hockey
• Speed skating
• Synchronized skating

Freestyle skiing
• Snowboarding
• Ski flying
• Skibob
• Snowshoeing
• Skiboarding