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White metal (6320 views - Material Database)

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type. A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F). In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly. During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m
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White metal

White metal

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type.

A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F).

In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly.

During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys such as Babbitt metal have a low melting point that is ideal for use as solder, but these alloys also have ideal characteristics for plain bearings. Most importantly for bearings, the material should be hard and wear-resistant and have a low coefficient of friction. It must also be shock-resistant, tough and sufficiently ductile to allow for slight misalignment prior to running-in.

Pure metals are soft, tough and ductile with a high coefficient of friction. Intermetallic compounds are hard and wear-resistant but brittle. By themselves, these do not make ideal bearing materials.

Alloys consist of small particles of a hard compound embedded in the tough, ductile background of a solid solution. In service the latter can wear away slightly leaving the hard compound to carry the load. This wear also provides channels to allow in lubricant (oils). All bearing metals contain antimony (Sb) which forms hard cubic crystals.

 % Sn  % Sb  % Cu  % Pb Applications
93 3.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine big end bearings
86 10.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine main bearings
80 11 3.0 6 General purpose heavy bearings (lead increases plasticity)
60 10 28.5 1.5 Heavy duty marine engine bearings, electrical machines
40 10 1.5 48.5 Low cost, general purpose, medium duty bearings

See also


41xx steelAL-6XNAlGaAlloy 20AlnicoAlumel알루미늄알루미늄 합금알루미늄 청동Aluminium-lithium alloy아말감Argentium sterling silverArsenical bronzeArsenical copper배빗메탈Bell metal베릴륨베릴륨구리Billon (alloy)BirmabrightBismanol비스무트황동BrightrayBritannia metalBritannia silver청동Bulat steelCalamine brass주철CelestriumChinese silverChromel크로뮴Chromium hydride코발트Colored goldConstantan구리Copper hydrideCopper–tungstenCorinthian bronzeCrown goldCrucible steelCunife백동Cymbal alloys다마스쿠스 강Devarda's alloyDoré bullion두랄루민Dutch metalElectrical steel호박금Elektron (alloy)ElinvarFernicoFerroalloy페로세륨FerrochromeFerromanganeseFerromolybdenumFerrosiliconFerrotitaniumFerrouraniumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolGalinstan갈륨Gilding metal유리GlucydurGoloidGuanín (bronze)Gum metalGunmetalHaynes InternationalHepatizonHiduminiumHigh-speed steelHigh-strength low-alloy steelHydronaliumInconel인듐InvarIron–hydrogen alloyItalmaKanthal (alloy)Kovar리튬Magnalium마그네슘Magnox (alloy)MangalloyManganinMaraging steelMarine grade stainlessMartensitic stainless steelMegalliumMelchior (alloy)머큐리MischmetalMolybdochalkosMonelMu-metalMuntz metalMushet steel니크롬니켈Nickel hydride양은Nickel titaniumNicrosilNisil노르딕 골드Ormolu퍼멀로이퓨터Phosphor bronze선철Pinchbeck (alloy)플라스틱Platinum sterlingPlexiglas플루토늄Plutonium–gallium alloy칼륨Pseudo palladiumQueen's metalReynolds 531Rhodite로듐Rose's metal사마륨Samarium–cobalt magnetSanicro 28스칸듐Scandium hydrideShakudōShibuichiSilver steel나트륨나크땜납Speculum metalSpiegeleisenSpring steelStaballoy스테인리스강강철Stellite스털링 실버Structural steelSupermalloySurgical stainless steelTerfenol-DTerneTibetan silver주석 (원소)타이타늄Titanium alloyTitanium Beta CTitanium goldTitanium hydrideTitanium nitrideTombacTool steelTumbagaType metal우라늄VitalliumWeathering steel우드 합금Wootz steelY alloyZeron 100아연지르코늄Uranium hydrideZamakZirconium hydride수소헬륨붕소질소산소플루오린메테인Mezzanine원자Honing (metalworking)Metalworking재료과학Ironworks

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