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Spring steel (12973 views - Material Database)

Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy Manganese, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.
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Spring steel

Spring steel

Spring steel

Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 se (Riksantikvarieämbetet / Pål-Nils Nilsson, CC-BY).

Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels[1] used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy Manganese, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.

Grades

Many grades of steel can be hardened and tempered to suit application as a spring; however, some steels exhibit more desirable characteristics for spring applications.

Common spring steel grades
SAE grade
(ASTM grade)
Composition Yield strength Hardness (HRC) Comments
Typical Maximum
1074/1075[2] 0.70–0.80% C, 0.50–0.80% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[3] 62–78 ksi (430–530 MPa)[4] 44–50[5] 50 Scaleless blue steel
1080 (A228) 0.7–1.0% C, 0.2–0.6% Mn, 0.1–0.3% Si[6] Piano wire, music wire
1095 (A684)[2] 0.90–1.03% C, 0.30–0.50% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[7] 60–75 ksi (413–517 MPa), annealed 48–51[5] 59 Blue spring steel
5160 (A689)[8] 0.55–0.65% C, 0.75–1.00% Mn, 0.70–0.90% Cr[9] 97 ksi (669 MPa) 63 Chrome-silicon spring steel; fatigue-resistant
50CrV4 (EN 10277) 0.47–0.55% C, max. 1.10% Mn, 0.90–1.20% Cr, 0.10–0.20% V, max. 0.40% Si 1200 MPa Old British 735 steel
9255 0.50–0.60% C, 0.70–0.95% Mn, 1.80–2.20% Si[9]
301 spring-tempered
stainless steel [10]
0.08–0.15% C, max. 2.00% Mn, 16.00–18.00% Cr, 6.00–8.00% Ni[9] 147 ksi (1014 MPa) 42

Applications

  • Applications include piano wire (also known as[11] music wire) such as ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon), spring clamps, antennas, springs, and vehicle coil springs, leaf springs, and s-tines.
  • Spring steel is also commonly used in the manufacture of metal swords both historically and for stage combat due to its resistance to bending, snapping or shattering.[dubious ]
  • Spring steel is one of the most popular materials used in the fabrication of lockpicks due to its pliability and resilience.
  • Tubular spring steel is used in the landing gear of some small aircraft due to its ability to absorb the impact of landing.
  • It is also commonly used in the making of knives, especially for the Nepalese kukri.
  • It is used in binder clips.

See also


41xx steelAlGaAlnico알루미늄알루미늄 합금알루미늄 청동Aluminium-lithium alloyArsenical bronzeArsenical copperBell metal베릴륨베릴륨구리Billon (alloy)BirmabrightBismanol비스무트황동청동Bulat steelCalamine brass주철Chinese silver크로뮴Chromium hydride코발트Colored goldConstantan구리Copper hydrideCopper–tungstenCorinthian bronzeCrown goldCrucible steelCunife백동Cymbal alloys다마스쿠스 강Devarda's alloy두랄루민Dutch metalElectrical steel호박금ElinvarFernicoFerroalloy페로세륨FerrochromeFerromanganeseFerromolybdenumFerrosiliconFerrotitaniumFerrouraniumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolGalinstan갈륨Gilding metal유리GlucydurGuanín (bronze)GunmetalHepatizonHiduminiumHigh-speed steelHigh-strength low-alloy steelHydronalium인듐InvarIron–hydrogen alloyItalmaKanthal (alloy)KovarMagnalium마그네슘MangalloyManganinMaraging steelMegalliumMelchior (alloy)머큐리MolybdochalkosMuntz metalMushet steel니크롬니켈양은노르딕 골드OrmoluPhosphor bronze선철Pinchbeck (alloy)플라스틱Plexiglas플루토늄칼륨Reynolds 531Rhodite로듐Rose's metal사마륨스칸듐Shakudō나트륨Speculum metalSpiegeleisenStaballoy스테인리스강강철StelliteStructural steel주석 (원소)타이타늄TombacTumbaga우라늄Vitallium우드 합금Y alloy아연지르코늄AL-6XNCelestriumAlloy 20Marine grade stainlessMartensitic stainless steelSanicro 28Surgical stainless steelZeron 100Silver steelTool steelWeathering steelWootz steel땜납TerneType metalElektron (alloy)아말감Magnox (alloy)AlumelBrightrayChromelHaynes InternationalInconelMonelNicrosilNisilNickel titaniumMu-metal퍼멀로이SupermalloyNickel hydridePlutonium–gallium alloy나크Mischmetal리튬Terfenol-DPseudo palladiumScandium hydrideSamarium–cobalt magnetArgentium sterling silverBritannia silverDoré bullionGoloidPlatinum sterlingShibuichi스털링 실버Tibetan silverTitanium Beta CTitanium alloyTitanium hydrideGum metalTitanium goldTitanium nitride배빗메탈Britannia metal퓨터Queen's metalWhite metalUranium hydrideZamakZirconium hydride수소헬륨붕소질소산소플루오린메테인Mezzanine원자Leaf spring섀시제철소용광로재료과학Ironworks

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