powered by CADENAS

Social Share

Ferrosilicon (7212 views - Material Database)

Ferrosilicon is a ferroalloy, an alloy of iron and silicon with an average silicon content between 15 and 90 weight percent. It contains a high proportion of iron silicides.
Go to Article



Ferrosilicon is a ferroalloy, an alloy of iron and silicon with an average silicon content between 15 and 90 weight percent. It contains a high proportion of iron silicides.[1]

Production and reactions

Ferrosilicon is produced by reduction of silica or sand with coke in the presence of iron. Typical sources of iron are scrap iron, millscale. Ferrosilicons with silicon content up to about 15% are made in blast furnaces lined with acid fire bricks. Ferrosilicons with higher silicon content are made in electric arc furnaces. The usual formulations on the market are ferrosilicons with 15%, 45%, 75%, and 90% silicon. The remainder is iron, with about 2% consisting of other elements like aluminium and calcium. An overabundance of silica is used to prevent formation of silicon carbide. Microsilica is a useful byproduct. There are quite a few manufacturers mainly in Andhra Pradesh namely Kalpataru Global Alloys Pvt Ltd and in Bhutan, Meghalaya, etc

A mineral perryite is similar to ferrosilicon, with its composition Fe5Si2. In contact with water, ferrosilicon may slowly produce hydrogen. The reaction, which is accelerated in the presence of base, is used for hydrogen production. The melting point and density of ferrosilicon depends on its silicon content.

Physical properties of ferrosilicon
Si content (wt.%) 0% 20% 35% 50% 60% 80% 100%
Melting point (°C) 1538° 1210° 1210° 1210° 1230° 1360° 1414°
Density (g/cm3) 7.87 6.76 5.65 5.1 4.27 3.44 2.33
Source: Materials Science and International Team[2]


Ferrosilicon is used as a source of silicon to reduce metals from their oxides and to deoxidize steel and other ferrous alloys. This prevents the loss of carbon from the molten steel (so called blocking the heat); ferromanganese, spiegeleisen, silicides of calcium, and many other materials are used for the same purpose.[3] It can be used to make other ferroalloys. Ferrosilicon is also used for manufacture of silicon, corrosion-resistant and high-temperature resistant ferrous silicon alloys, and silicon steel for electromotors and transformer cores. In the manufacture of cast iron, ferrosilicon is used for inoculation of the iron to accelerate graphitization. In arc welding, ferrosilicon can be found in some electrode coatings.

Ferrosilicon is a basis for manufacture of prealloys like magnesium ferrosilicon (MgFeSi), used for production of ductile iron. MgFeSi contains 3–42% magnesium and small amounts of rare earth metals. Ferrosilicon is also important as an additive to cast irons for controlling the initial content of silicon.

Magnesium ferrosilicon is instrumental in the formation of nodules, which give ductile iron its flexible property. Unlike gray cast iron, which forms graphite flakes, ductile iron contains graphite nodules, or pores, which make cracking more difficult.

Ferrosilicon is also used in the Pidgeon process to make magnesium from dolomite. Treatment of high-silicon ferrosilicon with hydrogen chloride is the basis of the industrial synthesis of trichlorosilane.

Hydrogen production

Ferrosilicon is used by the military to quickly produce hydrogen for balloons by the ferrosilicon method. The chemical reaction uses sodium hydroxide, ferrosilicon, and water. The generator is small enough to fit in a truck and requires only a small amount of electric power, the materials are stable and not combustible, and they do not generate hydrogen until mixed.[4] The method has been in use since World War I. A heavy steel pressure vessel is filled with sodium hydroxide and ferrosilicon, closed, and a controlled amount of water is added; the dissolving of the hydroxide heats the mixture to about 200 °F (93 °C) and starts the reaction; sodium silicate, hydrogen and steam are produced.[5]

  1. ^ Rudolf Fichte (2005), "Ferroalloys", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a10_305 
  2. ^ Materials Science and International Team (2008). Selected Systems from C-Cr-Fe to Co-Fe-S. Springer. p. 22 (Fig. 2 – Phase diagram of the Fe-Si system). ISBN 978-3-540-74193-0. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74196-1_12. Retrieved 25 December 2011. 
  3. ^ Ramesh Singh (3 October 2011). Applied Welding Engineering: Processes, Codes, and Standards. Elsevier. pp. 38–. ISBN 978-0-12-391916-8. Retrieved 25 December 2011. 
  4. ^ Report No 40: The ferrosilicon process for the generation of hydrogen
  5. ^ Candid science: conversations with famous chemists, István Hargittai, Magdolna Hargittai, p. 261, Imperial College Press (2000) ISBN 1-86094-228-8

Further reading

AlGaAlnico알루미늄알루미늄 합금알루미늄 청동Aluminium-lithium alloyArsenical bronzeArsenical copperBell metal베릴륨베릴륨구리Billon (alloy)BirmabrightBismanol비스무트황동청동Calamine brassChinese silver크로뮴Chromium hydride코발트Colored goldConstantan구리Copper hydrideCopper–tungstenCorinthian bronzeCrown goldCunife백동Cymbal alloysDevarda's alloy두랄루민Dutch metal호박금ElinvarFernicoFerroalloy페로세륨FerrochromeFerromanganeseFerromolybdenumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolGalinstan갈륨Gilding metal유리GlucydurGuanín (bronze)GunmetalHepatizonHiduminiumHydronalium인듐ItalmaMagnalium마그네슘ManganinMegalliumMelchior (alloy)머큐리MolybdochalkosMuntz metal니크롬니켈양은노르딕 골드OrmoluPhosphor bronzePinchbeck (alloy)플라스틱Plexiglas플루토늄칼륨Rhodite로듐Rose's metal사마륨스칸듐Shakudō나트륨Speculum metal스테인리스강강철StelliteStructural steel주석 (원소)타이타늄TombacTumbaga우라늄Vitallium우드 합금Y alloy아연지르코늄FerrotitaniumFerrouraniumInvar주철Iron–hydrogen alloy선철Kanthal (alloy)KovarStaballoySpiegeleisenBulat steelCrucible steel41xx steel다마스쿠스 강MangalloyHigh-speed steelMushet steelMaraging steelHigh-strength low-alloy steelReynolds 531Electrical steelSpring steelAL-6XNCelestriumAlloy 20Marine grade stainlessMartensitic stainless steelSanicro 28Surgical stainless steelZeron 100Silver steelTool steelWeathering steelWootz steel땜납TerneType metalElektron (alloy)아말감Magnox (alloy)AlumelBrightrayChromelHaynes InternationalInconelMonelNicrosilNisilNickel titaniumMu-metal퍼멀로이SupermalloyNickel hydridePlutonium–gallium alloy나크Mischmetal리튬Terfenol-DPseudo palladiumScandium hydrideSamarium–cobalt magnetArgentium sterling silverBritannia silverDoré bullionGoloidPlatinum sterlingShibuichi스털링 실버Tibetan silverTitanium Beta CTitanium alloyTitanium hydrideGum metalTitanium goldTitanium nitride배빗메탈Britannia metal퓨터Queen's metalWhite metalUranium hydrideZamakZirconium hydride수소헬륨붕소질소산소플루오린메테인Mezzanine원자

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

Material Database

database,rohs,reach,compliancy,directory,listing,information,substance,material,restrictions,data sheet,specification