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Guanín (bronze) (6732 views - Material Database)

Guanín was an alloy of copper, gold and silver, similar to red gold, used in pre-Columbian central America. The name is borrowed from the Taíno, who prized it for its reddish-purplish color and unique smell, and associated it with both worldly and supernatural power. It is a common misconception that pre-Columbian Americas lacked bronze and thus were not able to deploy hardened copper alloys. This misconception may well arise because tin, the common component of Eurasian bronze (although common in Bolivia), is rare in the Caribbean basin. Notwithstanding, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, chromium, cobalt and zinc mixed into a matrix of iron sulfides and other metal sulfides including gold, cobalt and nickel are readily available, often glittering in as natural ores such as pyrite (fool's gold), the brassy golden yellow cubanite, and marcasite. Deposits of these ores are found on the surfaces of the formerly submerged karst rock formations of these islands. Guanín may alternatively have been a manganese bronze. Today US "gold dollars" are made of an alloy of 88.5% copper, 6% zinc, 3.5% manganese and 2% nickel, which may be similar to guanin, although nickel would not have been included in guanin due to its high melting point. Columbus's report of metal axes in lands and seas of the Caribbean, although viewed skeptically by some, cannot be readily dismissed. In this aforecited article, authors attribute this bronze to the Mayans. One might bear in mind the Mayans were trading contacts with the Taínos who used the word guanín to describe the copper-gold alloys they used for ornamental and religious purposes. Additionally there were readily available natural deposits of the necessary ores (see above) in the Major Antilles. The existence of Pre-Columbian era metal tools in the Americas is now considered academic and historical "fact", although the question remains as to which ethnicities, nations or civilizations used these objects. Thus classification of Taíno technological progress as merely Neolithic may well be an misinterpretation awaiting archeological resolution of Taíno use of guanín alloy tools.
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Guanín (bronze)

Guanín (bronze)

Guanín was an alloy of copper, gold and silver,[1] similar to red gold, used in pre-Columbian central America. The name is borrowed from the Taíno,[2] who prized it for its reddish-purplish color and unique smell, and associated it with both worldly and supernatural power.[3]

It is a common misconception that pre-Columbian Americas lacked bronze and thus were not able to deploy hardened copper alloys. This misconception may well arise because tin, the common component of Eurasian bronze (although common in Bolivia), is rare in the Caribbean basin.

Notwithstanding, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, chromium, cobalt and zinc mixed into a matrix of iron sulfides and other metal sulfides including gold, cobalt and nickel are readily available, often glittering in as natural ores such as pyrite (fool's gold), the brassy golden yellow cubanite, and marcasite. Deposits of these ores are found on the surfaces of the formerly submerged karst rock formations of these islands.

Guanín may alternatively have been a manganese bronze.[citation needed] Today US "gold dollars" are made of an alloy of 88.5% copper, 6% zinc, 3.5% manganese and 2% nickel,[4] which may be similar to guanin, although nickel would not have been included in guanin due to its high melting point.

Columbus's report of metal axes in lands and seas of the Caribbean, although viewed skeptically by some, cannot be readily dismissed.[5] In this aforecited article, authors attribute this bronze to the Mayans. One might bear in mind the Mayans were trading contacts with the Taínos who used the word guanín to describe the copper-gold alloys they used for ornamental and religious purposes.[6] Additionally there were readily available natural deposits of the necessary ores (see above) in the Major Antilles. The existence of Pre-Columbian era metal tools in the Americas is now considered academic and historical "fact",[7] although the question remains as to which ethnicities, nations or civilizations used these objects. Thus classification of Taíno technological progress as merely Neolithic may well be an misinterpretation awaiting archeological resolution of Taíno use of guanín alloy tools.

  1. ^ Martinón-Torres, Marcos; Rojas, Roberto Valcárcel; Samper, Juanita Sáenz; Guerra, María Filomena (2012-05-28). "Metallic encounters in Cuba: The technology, exchange and meaning of metals before and after Columbus". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 31 (4): 439–454. doi:10.1016/j.jaa.2012.03.006. Retrieved 2017-04-24. 
  2. ^ Jeffrey Quilter and John W. Hoopes, Editors. Gold and Power in Ancient Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2003.
  3. ^ Aldersey-Williams, Hugh (2011). "El Dorado". Periodic Tables: A Cultural History of the Elements, from Arsenic to Zinc. pp. 20–21. ISBN 9780061824739. 
  4. ^ Daniel E. Edelstein. "Copper" (PDF). Minerals.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-28. 
  5. ^ Douglas T. Peck, "The Little Known Scientific Accomplishments of the Seafaring Chontal Maya from Northern Yucatan" (PDF). Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved 2010-04-18. 
  6. ^ Reniel Rodríguez Ramos (26 December 2011). "CARIBBEAN / Guanin". Encyclopedia of Puerto Rico. 
  7. ^ "Pre-Columbian Collection". Archived from the original on July 16, 2006. Retrieved 2005-10-17. , Dumbarton Oaks.

Alnico알루미늄알루미늄 합금알루미늄 청동Aluminium-lithium alloyArsenical bronzeArsenical copperBell metal베릴륨베릴륨구리Billon (alloy)BirmabrightBismanol비스무트황동청동Calamine brassChinese silver크로뮴Chromium hydride코발트구리두랄루민Dutch metalFlorentine bronze갈륨Gilding metal유리GlucydurHiduminiumHydronalium인듐ItalmaMagnalium마그네슘Megallium머큐리Muntz metal니크롬니켈Pinchbeck (alloy)플라스틱Plexiglas플루토늄칼륨로듐Rose's metal사마륨스칸듐나트륨스테인리스강강철StelliteStructural steel주석 (원소)타이타늄Tombac우라늄Vitallium우드 합금Y alloy아연지르코늄GunmetalPhosphor bronzeOrmoluSpeculum metalConstantanCopper hydrideCopper–tungstenCorinthian bronzeCunife백동Cymbal alloysDevarda's alloy호박금HepatizonManganinMelchior (alloy)양은Molybdochalkos노르딕 골드ShakudōTumbagaAlGaGalfenolGalinstanColored goldRhoditeCrown goldElinvarField's metalFernicoFerroalloy페로세륨FerrochromeFerromanganeseFerromolybdenumFerrosiliconFerrotitaniumFerrouraniumInvar주철Iron–hydrogen alloy선철Kanthal (alloy)KovarStaballoySpiegeleisenBulat steelCrucible steel41xx steel다마스쿠스 강MangalloyHigh-speed steelMushet steelMaraging steelHigh-strength low-alloy steelReynolds 531Electrical steelSpring steelAL-6XNCelestriumAlloy 20Marine grade stainlessMartensitic stainless steelSanicro 28Surgical stainless steelZeron 100Silver steelTool steelWeathering steelWootz steel땜납TerneType metalElektron (alloy)아말감Magnox (alloy)AlumelBrightrayChromelHaynes InternationalInconelMonelNicrosilNisilNickel titaniumMu-metal퍼멀로이SupermalloyNickel hydridePlutonium–gallium alloy나크Mischmetal리튬Terfenol-DPseudo palladiumScandium hydrideSamarium–cobalt magnetArgentium sterling silverBritannia silverDoré bullionGoloidPlatinum sterlingShibuichi스털링 실버Tibetan silverTitanium Beta CTitanium alloyTitanium hydrideGum metalTitanium goldTitanium nitride배빗메탈Britannia metal퓨터Queen's metalWhite metalUranium hydrideZamakZirconium hydride수소헬륨붕소질소산소플루오린메테인Mezzanine원자

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