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White metal (6292 views - Material Database)

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type. A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F). In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly. During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m
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White metal

White metal

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type.

A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F).

In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly.

During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys such as Babbitt metal have a low melting point that is ideal for use as solder, but these alloys also have ideal characteristics for plain bearings. Most importantly for bearings, the material should be hard and wear-resistant and have a low coefficient of friction. It must also be shock-resistant, tough and sufficiently ductile to allow for slight misalignment prior to running-in.

Pure metals are soft, tough and ductile with a high coefficient of friction. Intermetallic compounds are hard and wear-resistant but brittle. By themselves, these do not make ideal bearing materials.

Alloys consist of small particles of a hard compound embedded in the tough, ductile background of a solid solution. In service the latter can wear away slightly leaving the hard compound to carry the load. This wear also provides channels to allow in lubricant (oils). All bearing metals contain antimony (Sb) which forms hard cubic crystals.

 % Sn  % Sb  % Cu  % Pb Applications
93 3.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine big end bearings
86 10.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine main bearings
80 11 3.0 6 General purpose heavy bearings (lead increases plasticity)
60 10 28.5 1.5 Heavy duty marine engine bearings, electrical machines
40 10 1.5 48.5 Low cost, general purpose, medium duty bearings

See also


クロムモリブデン鋼AL-6XNAlGaAlloy 20アルニコ磁石Alumelアルミニウムアルミニウム合金アルミニウム青銅Aluminium-lithium alloyアマルガムArgentium sterling silverArsenical bronzeArsenical copperバビットメタルBell metalベリリウムベリリウム銅ビロンBirmabrightBismanolビスマス黄銅BrightrayBritannia metalBritannia silver青銅Bulat steelCalamine brass鋳鉄CelestriumChinese silverChromelクロムChromium hydrideコバルトホワイトゴールドコンスタンタン水素化銅Copper–tungstenCorinthian bronzeCrown goldCrucible steelクニフェ白銅Cymbal alloysダマスカス鋼デバルダ合金Doré bullionジュラルミンDutch metalケイ素鋼エレクトロン貨Elektron (alloy)エリンバーFernicoフェロアロイフェロセリウムフェロクロムフェロマンガンフェロモリブデンFerrosiliconFerrotitaniumFerrouraniumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolガリンスタンガリウムGilding metalガラスGlucydurGoloidGuanín (bronze)Gum metal砲金Haynes InternationalHepatizonHiduminium高速度鋼高張力鋼HydronaliumインコネルインジウムインバーIron–hydrogen alloyItalmaKanthal (alloy)コバールリチウムMagnaliumマグネシウムマグノックス高マンガン鋼マンガニンマルエージング鋼Marine grade stainlessMartensitic stainless steelMegalliumMelchior (alloy)マーキュリーミッシュメタルMolybdochalkosモネルMu-metalMuntz metalMushet steelニクロムニッケルNickel hydride洋白Nickel titaniumNicrosilNisilノルディック・ゴールドOrmoluパーマロイピューターリン青銅銑鉄Pinchbeck (alloy)合成樹脂Platinum sterlingPlexiglasプルトニウムプルトニウムガリウム合金カリウムPseudo palladiumQueen's metalReynolds 531RhoditeロジウムRose's metalサマリウムサマリウムコバルト磁石Sanicro 28スカンジウムScandium hydride赤銅 (合金)四分一 (合金)Silver steelナトリウムナトリウムカリウム合金はんだスペキュラム合金スピーゲルばね鋼Staballoyステンレス鋼ステライトスターリングシルバー鉄骨構造SupermalloySurgical stainless steelTerfenol-DTerneTibetan silverスズチタンチタン合金Titanium Beta CTitanium goldTitanium hydride窒化チタントムバック工具鋼Tumbaga活字合金ウランVitallium耐候性鋼ウッドメタルWootz steelY alloyZeron 100亜鉛ジルコニウム水素化ウラン(III)ZamakZirconium hydride水素ヘリウムホウ素窒素酸素フッ素メタン中二階原子Honing (metalworking)金属加工材料工学製鉄所

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