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Stolni nogomet (8537 views - Sports List)

Stolni nogomet (u državama s engleskog govornog područja foosball) je sport čije su osnove čvrsto vezane uz nogomet. Početci ovoga sporta su nejasni, no većina povjesničara se slaže da su se prvi stolovi pojavili osamdesetih i devedesetih 19. stoljeća u Francuskoj ili Njemačkoj. U Hrvatskoj je trenutno registrirano nekoliko stolnonogometnih klubova: Fest iz Međimurja, SNK Rijeka iz Rijeke, Sten i Zgfoos iz Zagreba, dok ih je još nekoliko u nastajanju. U toku je stvaranje Saveza i organizacija 1. Hrvatske stolnonogometne lige s početkom u sezoni 2008. / 2009.
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Stolni nogomet

Stolni nogomet

Stolni nogomet

Licensed under Free Art License (Unkown).

Stolni nogomet (u državama s engleskog govornog područja foosball) je sport čije su osnove čvrsto vezane uz nogomet. Početci ovoga sporta su nejasni, no većina povjesničara se slaže da su se prvi stolovi pojavili osamdesetih i devedesetih 19. stoljeća u Francuskoj ili Njemačkoj.

U Hrvatskoj je trenutno registrirano nekoliko stolnonogometnih klubova: Fest iz Međimurja, SNK Rijeka iz Rijeke, Sten i Zgfoos iz Zagreba, dok ih je još nekoliko u nastajanju. U toku je stvaranje Saveza i organizacija 1. Hrvatske stolnonogometne lige s početkom u sezoni 2008. / 2009.

Početci

Većina povjesničara nema isto mišljenje niti neoborive dokaze o početku i mjestu nastanka stolnoga nogometa. Prvi izumi datiraju pred više od sto godina. Druga imena za stolni nogomet su izvorni germanizam Fußball, što je i njemački naziv za nogomet, te anglizam foosball, koji se najviše koristi u SAD-u.

Igra

Osnove igre

Igra započinje ubacivanjem lopte kroz rupu na sredini stola ili mnogo jednostavnije, ubacivanjem lopte na sredinu stola što bliže središnjem krugu ili da se odbije od jednog od ruba što bliže središnjoj crti stola. Smisao igre je ubaciti loptu u gol kružno pomičući šipke na kojima su figure igrača okretanjem ručki koje se nalaze izvan rubova stola. U profesionalnim natjecanjima lopta može putovati brzinom od čak 64 km/h. Priroda igre je takva da su potrebni iznimno brzi refleksi i motoričke sposobnosti da se stigne ovladati loptom koja putuje velikom brzinom.

Osnove igre je dodavanje lopte, što je ustvari pomicanje lopte između šipki s igračima do druge šipke koja pripada istom igraču, te pucanje, što je pokušaj pronalaženja rupe u protivničkoj obrani i smještanja lopte u protivnički gol, iza vratara. Pobjednik igre je igrač koji dođe prije do unaprijed određenog broja golova potrebnih za pobjedu, što je najčešće 5 ili 10. Ako je rezultat 4-4 igra se po sistemu tko prije 2 gola razlike, a ako je 9-9, isto se igra tko prije 2 gola razlike ili tko prvi zabije gol na protivničkoj strani.

Stol

Stolovi variraju u dimenzijama, isto kao i nogometno igralište. Standardna verzija je 120 centimetara dužine i 60 centimetara širine. Na stolu se nalazi osam šipki s igračima. Šipka mora biti napravljena od drva, plastike, metala ili ponekad od karbonskih vlakana. Broj igrača jedne momčadi varira od jednoga do tri.

Smještaj šipki s igračima je standardan. Gledajući s lijeve na desnu stranu stola, vide se:

Red 1 Vaš vratar 1 igrač (ponekad 3)
Red 2 Vaša obrana 2 igrača
Red 3 Protivnički napad 3 igrača
Red 4 Vaš vezni red 5 igrača (ponekad 4)
Red 5 Protivnički vezni red 5 igrača (ponekad 4)
Red 6 Vaš napad 3 igrača
Red 7 Protivnička obrana 2 igrača
Red 8 Protivnički vratar 1 igrač (ponekad 3)

Strategija

Strategija varira od jednog do drugog igrača. Jedan igrač tijekom igre ima vrlo tešku zadaću jer je teško kontrolirati sva četiri segmenta igre: vratara, obranu, vezni red i napad. Neki igrači posjeduju iznimnu motoriku i usavršili su obranu na način da je praktički nemoguće da prime gol. Ti igrači kontroliraju vratara i obranu lijevom rukom, a dlanom i laktom kontroliraju vezni red i napad. Iako se ovakav sustav igre smatra poprilično radikalnim, donosi veliku prednost naprednim igračima. Igrači bez takve iznimne motorike koriste lijevi dlan za kontrolu obrane ili vratara, a desnom biraju između veznog reda i napada. Agresivni igrači koriste šipku za napad i vezni red ostavljajući vratara nepokretnog.

Stolni nogomet se može igrati i s četvero igrača, po dva sa svake strane. U ovakvom sustavu igre jedan igrač koristi dvije obrambene šipke, a drugi preostale dvije napadačke. Vježbom je moguće usavršiti postizanje gola iz prekida trikovima kao zmija, pull-shot i front-pin. Pull-shot je smještanje lopte blizu protivničkom golu, a zatim povlačenje šipke prema dolje i ciljanje nebranjenoga dijela gola. Zmija i front-pin uključuju kontroliranje lopte ili odbijanje između igrača iste momčadi. Kada se stvori nebranjeni prostor igrači pucaju prema golu.

Natjecanje

Stolni nogomet se igra vrlo često kao omiljena zabava u kafićima, školama ili radnim mjestima po pravilima koja su izmišljena od strane igrača, a najčešće se ne slažu sa službenim pravilima. No, stolni nogomet igraju i organiziraju brojne nacionalne organizacije koje igraju pod Međunarodnom federacijom stolnoga nogometa. Amaterska natjecanja u Europi datiraju nedugo poslije II. svjetskoga rata, dok profesionalni stolni nogomet i profesionalna natjecanja postoje tek od 1975., kada Lee Peppard, Amerikanac iz Seattlea osniva turnir s nagradnim fondom od 250.000 USD. Nakon tog turnira koji je polučio izvanredan uspjeh osnivali su se turniri diljem svijeta s višemilijunskim nagradnim fondom. Glavna organizacija stolnoga nogometa je ITSF (eng. International Table Soccer Federation - hrv. Međunarodna federacija stolnoga nogometa), koja organizira sva profesionalna natjecanja, kao i svjetsko prvenstvo.

Bezbrojne mjesne lige postoje diljem svijeta s ogromnim razlikama u kvaliteti i pravilima igre. Glavna razlika je između igraća u kafiću i profesionalaca. U Ujedinjenom Kraljevstvu se igra liga pod istim pravilima, ali na različitim mjestima, koja su ustvari kafići (pubovi). ITSF je organizirao i natjecanje koje je išlo uz bok SP-u u Njemačkoj 2006. Austrija je bila pobjednik, Njemačka druga, a Belgija treća.

Vrste stolova

Postoji veliki broj različitih vrsta stolova. Pet je glavnih stolova koji se svrstavaju po zemljama koje ih proizvode:

Ostalih sedam velikih proizvođača su Kicker, Garlando, Rosengart, Löwen-Soccer, Warrior, Lehmacher, Leonhart i Smoby. Postoji i 7-metarski stol kojeg je stvorio umjetnik Maurizio Cattelan u sklopu svoga djela koje je nazvao Stadion.

Razlike između vrsta stolova određuju strategiju i uvelike utječu na način igre igrača. Većina stolova ima jednoga vratara čije je pomicanje ograničeno unutar prostora za vratara. Igralište je dizajnirano tako da, ako lopta zapne u kut terena, vratar je ne može doseći, nego je potrebno da je igrači s druge šipke dodirnu. Ostali stolovi uključuju čak tri vratara. Još jedna bitna razlika je i materijal od kojega je lopta građena. Ako je metalna, brzina je veća i teže hvata vrtnju, a ako je, pak, plastična ili drvena, lakše hvata vrtnju, ali je brzina manja.

Roboti u stolnom nogometu

Roboti specijalizirani za stolni nogomet su razvijeni u Freiburgu, Njemačka. Tamošnji znanstvenici tvrde da su u stanju pobijediti 85% običnih ljudi. Koriste kameru ispod prozirne metalne osnove čija je svrha u stalnom promatranju lopte. Osim kamere imaju i elektronički sustav koji služi za mogućnost dodavanja lopte imzeđu igrača i pucanja prema golu. Prema istraživanju, najiskusniji igrači su u stanju stjecanja omjera pobjeda i poraza s robotom od 10-1! S druge strane, robot nazvan Foosbot nikada nije izgubio od ljudske osobe, no nikada nije odigrao protiv najiskusnijih i najboljih ljudi.

Vidi još

Vanjske poveznice

U Wikimedijinu spremniku nalazi se još gradiva na temu: Stolni nogomet


This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Stolni nogomet", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

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Baton twirling
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Acro sports
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Performance sports
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Catch games
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Climbing

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Cycling

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Skibob
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Unicycle

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Combat sports: wrestling and martial arts
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Striking

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Mixed or hybrid
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• Shoot boxing
• Shootfighting
• Shorinji Kempo
• Systema
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• Vajra-mushti
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• Xing Yi Quan
• Zen Bu Kan Kempo

Weapons
• Axe throwing
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• Eskrima
• Egyptian stick fencing
• Fencing
• Gatka
• Hojōjutsu
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• Kung fu
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• Naginatajutsu
• Nguni stick-fighting
• Okinawan kobudō
• Shurikenjutsu
• Silambam
• Sōjutsu
• Sword fighting
• Wushu
• Kumdo
• Wing Chun


Skirmish
• Airsoft
• Laser tag
• Paintball


Cue sports
• Carom billiards
• Three-cushion
• Five-pins
• Balkline and straight rail
• Cushion caroms
• Four-ball (yotsudama)
• Artistic billiards
• Novuss (and cued forms of carrom)
• Pocket billiards (pool)
• Eight-ball
• Blackball (a.k.a. British eight-ball pool)
• Nine-ball
• Straight pool (14.1 continuous)
• One-pocket
• Three-ball
• Seven-ball
• Ten-ball
• Rotation
• Baseball pocket billiards
• Cribbage (pool)
• Bank pool
• Artistic pool
• Trick shot competition
• Speed pool
• Bowlliards
• Chicago
• Kelly pool
• Cutthroat
• Killer
• Russian pyramid
• Snooker
• Sinuca brasileira
• Six-red snooker
• Snooker plus
• Hybrid carom–pocket games
• English billiards
• Bottle pool
• Cowboy
• Obstacle variations
• Bagatelle
• Bar billiards
• Bumper pool
• Table Sports
• Foosball


Equine sports
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• Show jumping
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• Western pleasure


Fishing
• Angling
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Flying disc sports

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Football

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• Medieval football
• Ba game
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• Calcio Fiorentino
• Camping (game)
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• Haxey Hood
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• Mob football
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• Uppies and Downies
• Association football
• Jorkyball
• Paralympic football
• Powerchair Football
• Reduced variants
• Five-a-side football
• Beach soccer
• Futebol de Salão
• Futsal
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• Indoor soccer
• Masters Football
• Street football
• Freestyle football
• Keepie uppie
• Swamp football
• Three sided football
• Australian football
• Nine-a-side footy
• Rec footy
• Metro footy
• English school games
• Eton College
• Field game
• Wall game
• Harrow football
• Gaelic football
• Ladies' Gaelic football
• Gridiron football
• American football
• Eight-man football
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• Nine-man football
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• Sprint football
• Touch football
• Canadian football
• Street football (American)
• Rugby football
• Beach rugby
• Rugby league
• Masters Rugby League
• Mod league
• Rugby league nines
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• Tag rugby
• Touch football
• Wheelchair rugby league
• Rugby union
• American flag rugby
• Mini rugby
• Rugby sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch rugby
• Rugby tens
• Snow rugby
• Hybrid codes
• Austus
• Eton wall game
• International rules football
• Samoa rules
• Speedball
• Universal football
• Volata


Golf

• Miniature golf
• Match play
• Skins game
• Speed golf
• Stroke play
• Team play
• Shotgun start

Gymnastics

• Acrobatic gymnastics
• Aerobic gymnastics
• Artistic gymnastics
• Balance beam
• Floor
• High bar
• Parallel bars
• Pommel horse
• Still rings
• Uneven bars
• Vault
• Juggling
• Rhythmic gymnastics
• Ball
• Club
• Hoop
• Ribbon
• Rope
• Rope jumping
• Slacklining
• Trampolining
• Trapeze
• Flying trapeze
• Static trapeze
• Tumbling

Handball family
• Goalball
• Hitbal
• Tchoukball
• Team handball
• Beach handball
• Czech handball
• Field handball
• Torball
• Water polo

Hunting

• Beagling
• Big game hunting
• Deer hunting
• Fox hunting
• Hare coursing
• Wolf hunting

Ice sports
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Curling
• Ice hockey
• Ringette
• Ice yachting
• Figure skating


Kite sports
• Kite buggy
• Kite fighting
• Kite landboarding
• Kitesurfing
• Parasailing
• Snow kiting
• Sport kite (Stunt kite)

Mixed discipline
• Adventure racing
• Biathlon
• Duathlon
• Decathlon
• Heptathlon
• Icosathlon
• Modern pentathlon
• Pentathlon
• Tetrathlon
• Triathlon

Orienteering family
• Geocaching
• Orienteering
• Rogaining
• Letterboxing
• Waymarking

Pilota family
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Jai alai
• Fives
• Eton Fives
• Rugby Fives
• Frisian handball
• Four square
• Gaelic handball
• Jeu de paume
• Palla
• Patball
• Valencian pilota

Racquet (or racket) sports
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Basque pelota
• Frontenis
• Xare
• Beach tennis
• Fives
• Matkot
• Padel
• Paleta Frontón
• Pelota mixteca
• Pickleball
• Platform tennis
• Qianball
• Racketlon
• Racquetball
• Racquets
• Real tennis
• Soft tennis
• Speed-ball
• Speedminton
• Squash
• Hardball squash
• Squash tennis
• Stické
• Table tennis
• Tennis
Remote control
• Model aerobatics
• RC racing
• Robot combat
• Slot car racing

Rodeo-originated
• Bullriding
• Barrel Racing
• Bronc Riding
• Saddle Bronc Riding
• Roping
• Calf Roping
• Team Roping
• Steer Wrestling
• Goat Tying

Running
• Endurance
• 5K run
• 10K run
• Cross-country running
• Half marathon
• Marathon
• Road running
• Tower running
• Ultramarathon
• Sprint
• Hurdles

Sailing / Windsurfing
• Ice yachting
• Land sailing
• Land windsurfing
• Sailing
• Windsurfing
• Kiteboarding
• Dinghy sailing

Snow sports
• Alpine skiing
• Freestyle skiing
• Nordic combined
• Nordic skiing
• Cross-country skiing
• Telemark skiing
• Ski jumping
• Ski touring
• Skijoring
• Speed skiing

Sled sports

• Bobsleigh
• Luge
• Skibobbing
• Skeleton
• Toboggan

Shooting sports
• Clay pigeon shooting
• Skeet shooting
• Trap shooting
• Sporting clays
• Target shooting
• Field target
• Fullbore target rifle
• High power rifle
• Benchrest shooting
• Metallic silhouette
• Practical shooting
• Cowboy action shooting
• Metallic silhouette shooting
Stacking
• Card stacking
• Dice stacking
• Sport stacking

Stick and ball games
• Hornussen

Hockey
• Hockey
• Ball hockey
• Bando
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Moscow broomball
• Field hockey
• Indoor field hockey
• Floorball
• Ice hockey

Ice hockey 
 • Pond hockey
• Power hockey
• Ringette
• Sledge hockey
• Underwater ice hockey
• Roller hockey
• Inline hockey
• Roller hockey (Quad)
• Skater hockey
• Rossall Hockey
• Spongee
• Street hockey
• Underwater hockey
• Unicycle hockey

Hurling and shinty
• Cammag
• Hurling
• Camogie
• Shinty
• Composite rules shinty-hurling

Lacrosse
• Lacrosse
• Box lacrosse
• Field lacrosse
• Women's lacrosse
• Intercrosse


Polo
• Polo
 • Bicycle polo
• Canoe polo
• Cowboy polo
• Elephant polo
• Horse polo
• Segway polo
• Yak polo

Street sports
• Free running
• Freestyle footbag
• Freestyle football
• Powerbocking
• Parkour
• Scootering
• Street workout

Tag games

• British bulldogs (American Eagle)
• Capture the flag
• Hana Ichi Monme
• Hide and seek
• Jugger
• Kabaddi
• Kho kho
• Kick the can
• Oztag
• Red rover
• Tag

Walking
• Hiking
• Backpacking (wilderness)
• Racewalking
• Bushwhacking
• Walking

Wall-and-ball
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Butts Up
• Chinese handball
• Fives
• Gaelic handball
• International fronton
• Jorkyball
• Racquetball
• Squash
• Squash tennis
• Suicide (game)
• Valencian frontó
• Wallball
• Wallyball

Aquatic & paddle sports
• Creeking
• Flyak
• Freeboating
• Sea kayaking
• Squirt boating
• Surf kayaking
• Whitewater kayaking

Rafting
• Rafting
• White water rafting

Rowing
• Rowing (sport)
• Gig racing
• Coastal and ocean rowing
• Surfboat
• Single scull
Other paddling sports
• Dragon boat racing
• Stand up paddle boarding
• Water polo
• Canoe polo
• Waboba

Underwater
• Underwater football
• Underwater rugby
• Underwater hockey

Competitive swimming
• Backstroke
• Breaststroke
• Butterfly stroke
• Freestyle swimming
• Individual medley
• Synchronized swimming
• Medley relay

Kindred activities
• Bifins (finswimming)
• Surface finswimming

Subsurface and recreational
• Apnoea finswimming
• Aquathlon (underwater wrestling)
• Freediving
• Immersion finswimming
• Scuba diving
• Spearfishing
• Snorkelling
• Sport diving (sport)
• Underwater hockey
• Underwater orienteering
• Underwater photography (sport)
• Underwater target shooting
Diving
• Cliff diving
• Diving

Weightlifting
• Basque traditional weightlifting
• Bodybuilding
• Highland games
• Olympic weightlifting
• Powerlifting
• Strength athletics (strongman)
• Steinstossen

Motorized sports
• Autocross (a.k.a. Slalom)
• Autograss
• Banger racing
• Board track racing
• Demolition derby
• Desert racing
• Dirt track racing
• Drag racing
• Drifting
• Folkrace
• Formula racing
• Formula Libre
• Formula Student
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Kart racing
• Land speed records
• Legends car racing
• Midget car racing
• Monster truck
• Mud bogging
• Off-road racing
• Pickup truck racing
• Production car racing
• Race of Champions
• Rally raid
• Rallycross
• Rallying
• Regularity rally
• Road racing
• Short track motor racing
• Snowmobile racing
• Sports car racing
• Sprint car racing
• Street racing
• Stock car racing
• Time attack
• Tractor pulling
• Touring car racing
• Truck racing
• Vintage racing
• Wheelstand competition

Motorboat racing
• Drag boat racing
• F1 powerboat racing
• Hydroplane racing
• Jet sprint boat racing
• Offshore powerboat racing
• Personal water craft

Motorcycle racing
• Auto Race
• Board track racing
• Cross-country rally
• Endurance racing
• Enduro
• Freestyle motocross
• Grand Prix motorcycle racing
• Grasstrack
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Ice speedway
• Indoor enduro
• Motocross
• Motorcycle drag racing
• Motorcycle speedway
• Off-roading
• Rally raid
• Road racing
• Superbike racing
• Supercross
• Supermoto
• Supersport racing
• Superside
• Track racing
• Trial
• TT racing
• Free-style moto

Marker sports
• Airsoft
• Archery
• Paintball
• Darts

Musical sports
• Color guard
• Drum corps
• Indoor percussion
• Marching band

Fantasy sports
• Quidditch
• Hunger Games(Gladiating)
• Pod Racing
• Mortal Kombat(MMA)

Other
• Stihl Timbersports Series
• Woodsman

Overlapping sports
• Tennis
• Polocrosse
• Badminton
• Polo

Skating sports
• Aggressive inline skating
• Artistic roller skating
• Figure skating
• Freestyle slalom skating
• Ice dancing
• Ice skating
• Inline speed skating
• Rinkball
• Rink hockey
• Roller derby
• Roller skating
• Short track speed skating
• Skater hockey
• Speed skating
• Synchronized skating

Freestyle skiing
• Snowboarding
• Ski flying
• Skibob
• Snowshoeing
• Skiboarding