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White metal (6267 views - Material Database)

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type. A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F). In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly. During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m
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White metal

White metal

The white metals are any of several light-coloured alloys used as a base for plated silverware, ornaments or novelties, as well as any of several lead-based or tin-based alloys used for things like bearings, jewellery, miniature figures, fusible plugs, some medals and metal type.

A white metal alloy may include antimony, tin, lead, cadmium, bismuth, and zinc (some of which are quite toxic). Not all of these metals are found in all white metal alloys. Metals are mixed to achieve a desired goal or need. As an example, a base metal for jewellery needs to be castable, polishable, have good flow characteristics, have the ability to cast fine detail without an excessive amount of porosity and cast at between 230 °C and 300 °C (450 °F and 575 °F).

In compliance with British law, the British fine art trade uses the term "white metal" in auction catalogues to describe foreign silver items which do not carry British Assay Office marks, but which are nonetheless understood to be silver and are priced accordingly.

During cooling white metal shrinks 5mm/m

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys

Tin-lead and tin-copper alloys such as Babbitt metal have a low melting point that is ideal for use as solder, but these alloys also have ideal characteristics for plain bearings. Most importantly for bearings, the material should be hard and wear-resistant and have a low coefficient of friction. It must also be shock-resistant, tough and sufficiently ductile to allow for slight misalignment prior to running-in.

Pure metals are soft, tough and ductile with a high coefficient of friction. Intermetallic compounds are hard and wear-resistant but brittle. By themselves, these do not make ideal bearing materials.

Alloys consist of small particles of a hard compound embedded in the tough, ductile background of a solid solution. In service the latter can wear away slightly leaving the hard compound to carry the load. This wear also provides channels to allow in lubricant (oils). All bearing metals contain antimony (Sb) which forms hard cubic crystals.

 % Sn  % Sb  % Cu  % Pb Applications
93 3.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine big end bearings
86 10.5 3.5 Light and medium IC engine main bearings
80 11 3.0 6 General purpose heavy bearings (lead increases plasticity)
60 10 28.5 1.5 Heavy duty marine engine bearings, electrical machines
40 10 1.5 48.5 Low cost, general purpose, medium duty bearings

See also


41xx steelAL-6XNAlGaAlloy 20Aimant AlNiCoAlumelAluminiumAluminium alloyCuproaluminiumAluminium-lithium alloyAmalgame (métallurgie)Argentium sterling silverBronze arséniéArsenical copperBabbitt (alloy)Bell metalBérylliumBronze au bérylliumBillon (alliage)BirmabrightBismanolBismuthLaitonBrightrayBritanniumArgent BritanniaBronzeBulat steelCalamine brassFonte (métallurgie)CelestriumChinese silverChromelChromeChromium hydrideCobaltColored goldConstantanCuivreCopper hydrideCopper–tungstenBronze de CorintheCrown goldAcier au creusetCunifeCupronickelCymbal alloysAcier de DamasAlliage de DevardaDoré bullionAlliages d'aluminium pour corroyage#Série 2000 (aluminium cuivre)Dutch metalFer douxÉlectrumElektronÉlinvarFernicoFerroalliagePierre à briquetFerrochromeFerromanganèseFerromolybdèneFerrosiliciumFerrotitaneFerrouraniumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolGalinstanGalliumLaiton rougeVerreGlucydurOrGoloidGuanín (bronze)Gum metalGunmetalHaynes InternationalHepatizonHiduminiumAcier rapideHigh-strength low-alloy steelHydronaliumInconelIndiumInvarFerHydrure de ferItalmaKanthalKovarPlombLithiumMagnaliumMagnésiumMagnox (alloy)MangalloyManganinAcier maragingMarine grade stainlessMartensitic stainless steelMegalliumMaillechortMercuryMischmétalMolybdochalkosMonelMu-métalMuntz metalMushet steelNichromeNickelHydrure de nickelMaillechortNitinolNicrosilNisilOr nordiqueDorure#Dorure au mercurePermalloyAlliage plomb-étainBronze phosphoreuxFonte brutePinchbeck (alloy)Matière plastiquePlatinum sterlingPlexiglasPlutoniumAlliage plutonium-galliumPotassiumPseudo palladiumQueen's metalReynolds 531rhoditeRhodiumRose's metalSamariumAimant samarium-cobaltSanicro 28ScandiumScandium hydrideShakudōShibuichiArgentSilver steelSodiumNaKSolderSpeculum metalSpiegeleisenSpring steelStaballoyAcier inoxydableAcierStellite (alliage)Argent sterlingStructural steelSupermalloySurgical stainless steelTerfenol-DTerneTibetan silverÉtainTitaneAlliage de titaneTitanium Beta CTitanium goldHydrure de titaneNitrure de titaneTombacAcier à outilsTumbagaPlomb typographiqueUraniumVitalliumAcier CortenMétal de WoodWootzY alloyZeron 100ZincZirconiumHydrure d'uranium(III)ZamakZirconium hydrideHydrogèneHéliumBoreAzoteOxygèneFluorMéthaneMezzanine (architecture)AtomePierrageMetalworkingScience des matériauxIronworks

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