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Spring steel (12926 views - Material Database)

Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy Manganese, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.
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Spring steel

Spring steel

Spring steel

Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 se (Riksantikvarieämbetet / Pål-Nils Nilsson, CC-BY).

Spring steel is a name given to a wide range of steels[1] used in the manufacture of springs, prominently in automotive and industrial suspension applications. These steels are generally low-alloy Manganese, medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel with a very high yield strength. This allows objects made of spring steel to return to their original shape despite significant deflection or twisting.

Grades

Many grades of steel can be hardened and tempered to suit application as a spring; however, some steels exhibit more desirable characteristics for spring applications.

Common spring steel grades
SAE grade
(ASTM grade)
Composition Yield strength Hardness (HRC) Comments
Typical Maximum
1074/1075[2] 0.70–0.80% C, 0.50–0.80% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[3] 62–78 ksi (430–530 MPa)[4] 44–50[5] 50 Scaleless blue steel
1080 (A228) 0.7–1.0% C, 0.2–0.6% Mn, 0.1–0.3% Si[6] Piano wire, music wire
1095 (A684)[2] 0.90–1.03% C, 0.30–0.50% Mn, max. 0.030% P, max. 0.035% S[7] 60–75 ksi (413–517 MPa), annealed 48–51[5] 59 Blue spring steel
5160 (A689)[8] 0.55–0.65% C, 0.75–1.00% Mn, 0.70–0.90% Cr[9] 97 ksi (669 MPa) 63 Chrome-silicon spring steel; fatigue-resistant
50CrV4 (EN 10277) 0.47–0.55% C, max. 1.10% Mn, 0.90–1.20% Cr, 0.10–0.20% V, max. 0.40% Si 1200 MPa Old British 735 steel
9255 0.50–0.60% C, 0.70–0.95% Mn, 1.80–2.20% Si[9]
301 spring-tempered
stainless steel [10]
0.08–0.15% C, max. 2.00% Mn, 16.00–18.00% Cr, 6.00–8.00% Ni[9] 147 ksi (1014 MPa) 42

Applications

  • Applications include piano wire (also known as[11] music wire) such as ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon), spring clamps, antennas, springs, and vehicle coil springs, leaf springs, and s-tines.
  • Spring steel is also commonly used in the manufacture of metal swords both historically and for stage combat due to its resistance to bending, snapping or shattering.[dubious ]
  • Spring steel is one of the most popular materials used in the fabrication of lockpicks due to its pliability and resilience.
  • Tubular spring steel is used in the landing gear of some small aircraft due to its ability to absorb the impact of landing.
  • It is also commonly used in the making of knives, especially for the Nepalese kukri.
  • It is used in binder clips.

See also


41xx steelAlGaAimant AlNiCoAluminiumAluminium alloyCuproaluminiumAluminium-lithium alloyBronze arséniéArsenical copperBell metalBérylliumBronze au bérylliumBillon (alliage)BirmabrightBismanolBismuthLaitonBronzeBulat steelCalamine brassFonte (métallurgie)Chinese silverChromeChromium hydrideCobaltColored goldConstantanCuivreCopper hydrideCopper–tungstenBronze de CorintheCrown goldAcier au creusetCunifeCupronickelCymbal alloysAcier de DamasAlliage de DevardaAlliages d'aluminium pour corroyage#Série 2000 (aluminium cuivre)Dutch metalFer douxÉlectrumÉlinvarFernicoFerroalliagePierre à briquetFerrochromeFerromanganèseFerromolybdèneFerrosiliciumFerrotitaneFerrouraniumField's metalFlorentine bronzeGalfenolGalinstanGalliumLaiton rougeVerreGlucydurOrGuanín (bronze)GunmetalHepatizonHiduminiumAcier rapideHigh-strength low-alloy steelHydronaliumIndiumInvarFerHydrure de ferItalmaKanthalKovarPlombMagnaliumMagnésiumMangalloyManganinAcier maragingMegalliumMaillechortMercuryMolybdochalkosMuntz metalMushet steelNichromeNickelMaillechortOr nordiqueDorure#Dorure au mercureBronze phosphoreuxFonte brutePinchbeck (alloy)Matière plastiquePlexiglasPlutoniumPotassiumReynolds 531rhoditeRhodiumRose's metalSamariumScandiumShakudōArgentSodiumSpeculum metalSpiegeleisenStaballoyAcier inoxydableAcierStellite (alliage)Structural steelÉtainTitaneTombacTumbagaUraniumVitalliumMétal de WoodY alloyZincZirconiumAL-6XNCelestriumAlloy 20Marine grade stainlessMartensitic stainless steelSanicro 28Surgical stainless steelZeron 100Silver steelAcier à outilsAcier CortenWootzSolderTernePlomb typographiqueElektronAmalgame (métallurgie)Magnox (alloy)AlumelBrightrayChromelHaynes InternationalInconelMonelNicrosilNisilNitinolMu-métalPermalloySupermalloyHydrure de nickelAlliage plutonium-galliumNaKMischmétalLithiumTerfenol-DPseudo palladiumScandium hydrideAimant samarium-cobaltArgentium sterling silverArgent BritanniaDoré bullionGoloidPlatinum sterlingShibuichiArgent sterlingTibetan silverTitanium Beta CAlliage de titaneHydrure de titaneGum metalTitanium goldNitrure de titaneBabbitt (alloy)BritanniumAlliage plomb-étainQueen's metalWhite metalHydrure d'uranium(III)ZamakZirconium hydrideHydrogèneHéliumBoreAzoteOxygèneFluorMéthaneMezzanine (architecture)AtomeRessort à lamesChâssis (automobile)AciérieHaut fourneauScience des matériauxIronworks

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