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Professional sports (4420 views - Sports List)

Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations or teams can command large incomes. As a result, more sportspeople can afford to make athleticism their primary career, devoting the training time necessary to increase skills, physical condition, and experience to modern levels of achievement. This proficiency has also helped boost the popularity of sports.Most sports played professionally also have amateur players far outnumbering the professionals.
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Professional sports

Professional sports

Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brought larger audiences, so that sports organizations or teams can command large incomes.[1] As a result, more sportspeople can afford to make athleticism their primary career, devoting the training time necessary to increase skills, physical condition, and experience to modern levels of achievement.[1] This proficiency has also helped boost the popularity of sports.[1]

Most sports played professionally also have amateur players far outnumbering the professionals.



Baseball originated before the American Civil War (1861–1865). First played on sandlots in particular, scoring and record-keeping gave baseball gravity. "Today," notes John Thorn in The Baseball Encyclopedia, "baseball without records is inconceivable."

In 1871, the first professional baseball league was created.[2] By the beginning of the 20th century, most large cities in the eastern United States had a professional baseball team. After several leagues came and went in the 19th century, the National League (founded in 1876) and American League (recognized as a major league in 1903) were established as the dominant leagues by the early 20th century. The most victorious team in each league was said to have won the "pennant;" the two pennant winners met after the end of the regular season in the World Series. The winner of at least four games (out of a possible seven) was the champion for that year. This arrangement still holds today, although the leagues are now subdivided and pennants are decided in post-season playoff series between the winners of each division.[2]

Baseball became popular in the 1920s, when Babe Ruth led the New York Yankees to several World Series titles and became a national hero on the strength of his home runs (balls that cannot be played because they have been hit out of the field). One of the most noteworthy players was the Brooklyn Dodgers' Jackie Robinson, who became the first African-American player in the major leagues in 1947. Prior to Robinson, black players had been restricted to the Negro Leagues.[2]

Starting in the 1950s, major league baseball expanded its geographical range. Western cities got teams, either by luring them to move from eastern cities or by forming expansion teams with players made available by established teams. Until the 1970s, because of strict contracts, the owners of baseball teams also virtually owned the players; since then, the rules have changed so that players can become free agents, within certain limits, to sell their services to any team. The resulting bidding wars led to increasingly wealthy players. Disputes between the players' union and the owners have at times halted baseball for months at a time.[2]

Japan has also seen a prominent professional baseball circuit develop known as Nippon Professional Baseball. Founded in 1934, the league emerged as an international force after World War II. NPB is considered to be the highest caliber of baseball outside the U.S. major leagues, and the best Japanese talent often emigrate to the U.S. by way of the posting system. Other prominent countries to play the game include South Korea (where their league has its own posting system with Major League Baseball), Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean states.

American football

Football (commonly known as American football in Europe and Australia) was professionalized in the 1890s as a slow, and initially covert, process; William Heffelfinger and Ben "Sport" Donnelly were the first to secretly accept payment for playing the game in 1892.[citation needed] Regional leagues in Chicago, Pennsylvania, Ohio and New York had coalesced in the 1900s and 1910s, most of which gave way to the first truly national football league, the American Professional Football Association, in 1920.[citation needed] By 1920, pro football remained overshadowed by the college game. The first game involving an APFA team took place on September 26, 1920, at Douglas Park in Rock Island, Illinois, as the hometown Independents flattened the St. Paul Ideals 48-0. The first head-to-head battles in the league occurred one week later as Dayton topped Columbus 14-0 and Rock Island pasted Muncie 45-0.

Forward passes were rare, coaching from the sidelines was prohibited and players competed on both offense and defense. Money was so tight that Hals carried equipment, wrote press releases, sold tickets, taped ankles, played and coached for the Decatur club. As opposed to today’s standard 16-game schedule, clubs in 1920 scheduled their own opponents and could play non league and even college squads that counted toward their records. With no established guidelines, the number of games played—and the quality of opponents scheduled—by APFA teams varied, and the league did not maintain official standings.[3]

The Buffalo All-Americans, Chicago Tigers, Columbus Panhandles and Detroit Heralds joined the league before the end of the season, raising the total number of teams to 14, but the inaugural season was a struggle. Games received little attention from the fans—and even less from the press. According to Robert W. Peterson’s book "Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football," APFA games averaged crowds of 4,241. The association bylaws called for teams to pay a $100 entry fee, but no one ever did. Muncie played only one game before dropping out before the end of the season, which concluded on December 19.

At the conclusion of the season there were no playoffs (that innovation, although New York's regional league had used it, would not arrive until 1933) and it took more than four months before the league even bothered to crown a champion. Much as college football did for decades, the APFA determined its victor by ballot. On April 30, 1921, team representatives voted the Akron Pros, who completed the season undefeated with eight wins and three ties while yielding only a total of seven points, the champion in spite of protests by the one-loss teams in Decatur and Buffalo, who each had tied Akron and had more wins. The victors received a silver loving cup donated by sporting goods company Brunswick-Balke-Collender. While players were not given diamond-encrusted rings, they did receive golden fobs in the shape of a football inscribed with the words "World Champions."

Forgotten in the collective sports memory that the league’s official record books listed the 1920 championship as undecided until the 2013. The whereabouts of the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Cup, only given out that one time, are unknown. The legacy of two APFA franchises continues on, however. The Racine Cardinals now play in Arizona, and the Decatur Staleys moved to Chicago in 1921 and changed their name to the Bears the following year. Ten APFA players along with Carr are enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, which opened its doors in 1963 not far from the Canton automobile dealership that gave birth to the NFL in 1920.[4]

The APFA, by 1922 known as the National Football League, has remained the predominant professional football league in the United States, and, effectively, the entire world. The evolution from a haphazard collection of teams in big and small cities to the much more rigid structure it is in the present was gradual; the smaller markets were squeezed out in the late 1920s and early 1930s, a championship game was established in 1933, a draft was established in 1936, and schedules were standardized in the 1930s. A competing league has historically arisen to attempt to challenge the NFL's dominance every 10 to 15 years, but none managed to maintain long-term operations independent of the NFL and only two—the All-America Football Conference of the late 1940s and the American Football League of the 1960s—were strong enough to successfully compete against the league before the NFL subsumed their operations. Minor league football, although their leagues' memberships were unstable, began to arise in the late 1930s and remained viable as a business model up into the 1970s.

A major factor in the NFL's rise to dominance was its embrace of television early in the sport's history. As college football heavily restricted the rights of its teams to broadcast games (a policy eventually ruled to be illegal in 1984), the NFL instead allowed games to be televised nationwide, except in a team's home city; the restriction was softened in the early 1970s, by which point the NFL had secured broadcast deals with all of the major television networks, another major factor in the inability of any competing league to gain traction since then.

The related sport of Canadian football was eventually professionalized by the 1950s, which saw the evolution of the Canadian Football League. The CFL, despite losing all games in a series of contests against the NFL, was considered to be at least comparable in talent to the American leagues of the 1960s (its lone game against an AFL squad was a victory). Because Canada has a tenth of the population of the United States, the ability to make money from television was much lower, and although some of the cities of Canada were comparable to the major markets of the U.S., teams in places such as Saskatchewan and Hamilton were in markets quite small compared to even the small markets of the NFL, thus the CFL now pays noticeably less than other major professional leagues, but still more than enough to be considered fully professional.

The rise of indoor American football beginning in the late 1980s has allowed for smaller-scale professional football to be viable.

Ice hockey

Ice hockey was first professionalized in Pittsburgh in the early 1900s (decade). As Canadians made up the vast majority of hockey players, early American professional leagues imported almost all of their talent before Canadian leagues began to form in the wake of a mining boom, depriving the U.S. leagues and teams of talent. Two distinct circuits formed: the Pacific Coast Hockey Association in western Canada and the northwestern U.S., and the National Hockey Association of central Canada, both of which competed for the then-independent Stanley Cup. The NHA's teams reorganized as the National Hockey League in 1917, and the West Coast circuit died out by the mid-1920s.

By 1926, the NHL expanded to 10 teams in Canada, and in the northeastern and midwestern United States. However, the onset of the Great Depression in 1930s, combined with Canada's entry into World War II (which greatly reduced the league's player pool), led to the league’s retrenchment to six markets: Boston, New York City, Chicago and Detroit in the U.S., and Toronto and Montreal in Canada. These Original Six cities would be the only cities with NHL franchises from 1935 to 1967. During this time, the NHL was both stagnant and restrictive in its policies, giving teams territorial advantages, having teams with multiple owners in the same family (thus allowing the best players to be stacked onto certain teams), and restricting its players' salaries through reserve clauses. This stagnation allowed other leagues to arise: the Western Hockey League soon became the de facto major league of the western states and provinces, and the second-tier American Hockey League emerged in a number of midwestern markets the NHL had neglected, in addition to a handful of small towns.

Amid pressure from television networks that were threatening to offer the WHL a contract, the NHL doubled in size in 1967, beginning a period of expansion that lasted through much of the 1970s. The last major challenger to the NHL's dominance was the World Hockey Association, which successfully broke the NHL's reserve clause in court, drove up professional hockey salaries, and continued to pressure the older league into expansion. The WHA merged four of its remaining teams into the NHL in 1979, but had to give up most of its players, as they were still under NHL contract and had to return to their original teams. The NHL made its last pronounced realignment in the 1990s, moving most of the WHA teams out of their markets and establishing a number of new teams in the southern United States.

In Europe, the introduction of professionalism varied widely, and the highest-caliber league on the continent, the Soviet Championship League (proven to be at least equal to or better than the NHL in the 1970s), was officially composed of semi-professional works teams paid for their association with industries or government agencies (the Red Army squad employed members of the armed forces, and the Soviet Union often drafted the best hockey players in the country to serve on the squad). The modern-day descendant of the Soviet league, the Kontinental Hockey League, is fully professional and has a number of teams outside Russia, to the point where it has the resources to sign NHL veterans. Other European countries such as Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Norway, Finland, and Austria also have prominent professional leagues.


Basketball was invented in 1891 and the first professional leagues emerged in the 1920s. The Basketball Association of America was established in 1946 and three years later became the modern National Basketball Association. The NBA was slower to establish dominance of the sport than other sports in the United States, as it would not do so until 1976, when it absorbed four teams from the American Basketball Association.

Professional basketball has the advantages of much smaller rosters than other professional sports, allowing the sport to be viable in smaller cities than other sports. Professional basketball leagues of varying caliber can be found around the world, especially in Europe and South America.dld. 7d

Resistance to professionalism

Professional athleticism is seen as a contradiction of the central ethos of sport, competition performed for its own sake and pure enjoyment, rather than as a means of earning a living.[1] Consequently, many organisations and commentators have resisted the growth of professional athleticism, saying that it was so incredible that it has impeded the development of sport. For example, rugby union was for many years a part-time sport engaged in by amateurs, and English cricket has allegedly suffered in quality because of a "non-professional" approach.[1] An important reason why professional sports has been resisted in history was that organisations for professional sports usually did not submit to the international sports federations, and could have their own rules.[citation needed] For example, the National Basketball Association was formerly not a member of the FIBA.

On the other hand, amateur rules heavily favour those countries where all elite players are de facto professionals but are able to retain their amateur status by earning allowances instead of salaries.[5] For example, all Eastern bloc countries were populated with amateur players who were actually full-time athletes hired as regular workers of a company (aircraft industry, food workers, tractor industry) or organization (KGB, Red Army, Soviet Air Force) that sponsored what would be presented as an after-hours social sports society team for their workers.[6][7]

Sports salaries

Men involved in professional sports can earn a great deal of money at the highest levels. For instance, the highest-paid team in professional baseball is New York Yankees.[8] Tiger Woods is the highest-paid athlete, totaling $127,902,706, including his endorsement income,[9] which massively exceeds what he earns from tournament golf. Woods recently became the world's first athlete to earn a billion dollars from prize money and endorsements.[10] It would have taken the salary of two thousand 1980s professional golfers each making $58,500 to match up with Tiger Woods’ current salary. Samuel Eto'o is the world's second highest-earning athlete and the highest-paid footballer in the world, raking in £35.7 million (over $54 million) a year excluding off-field earnings.[11] The top ten tennis players make about $3 million a year on average. Much of the growth in income for sports and athletes has come from broadcasting rights; for example, the most recent television contract for the NFL is valued at nearly US$5 billion per year.[12] Women in the U.S., on the other hand, make much less, for example as of 2014, the WNBA enforced a maximum salary of US$107,000 for star players (coaches could earn double that).[13] This is largely driven by the fact that the American viewing audience has far less interest in women's professional sport compared to men's; average in-person attendance and television viewership are both far higher for the NBA compared to the WNBA. According to investopedia.com, a male star like Kobe Bryant or LeBron James can individually earn a salary larger than every player in the WNBA combined.[14]

Outside the highest leagues, however, the money professional athletes can earn drops dramatically, as fan bases are generally smaller and television revenues are nonexistent. For instance, while the National Football League's teams can afford to pay their players millions of dollars each year and still maintain a significant profit, the second-highest American football league in the United States, the United Football League, consistently struggled to pay its bills and has continually lost money despite allotting its players only US$20,000 a year, and television networks made the league pay for television airtime instead of paying the league, making the league's business model unworkable.[15][16][17] In the United States and Canada, most lower-end professional leagues run themselves as affiliated farm teams, effectively agreeing to develop younger players for eventual play in the major leagues in exchange for subsidizing those players' salaries; this is known as the minor league system and is most prevalent in professional baseball and professional ice hockey. Otherwise, the league may be required to classify itself as semi-professional, in other words, able to pay their players a small sum, but not enough to cover the player's basic costs of living.

Many professional athletes experience financial difficulties soon after retiring, due to a combination of bad investments, careless spending, and a lack of non-athletic skills. The wear and tear of a career in professional sport, can cause physical and mental side effects (such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a condition that has seen a massive rise in public awareness in the 2010s) that can harm a former professional athlete's employability. In the United States, some of these problems are mitigated by the fact that the college sports system ensures most professional athletes receive a college education with no student debt, a legacy that provides them with a career path after their sports career ends.

American football

In the NFL average annual salaries by position in 2009 were:[18]

Association football

Chinese Super League

The average salary of a player in the Chinese Super League was about ¥10.7 million (£1 million) for the 2011 season, up from ¥600,000 in the 2010 season. The highest-paid player for the 2011 Chinese Super League season was Dario Conca of Guangzhou Evergrande who received an annual salary of ¥67.4 million ($10.5 million) after income tax, putting him among the highest-paid players in the world.[20]

Russian Premier League

The highest-paid player for the 2011–2012 Russian Premier League season was Samuel Eto'o of Anzhi Makhachkala, who at the end of the 2011–12 season was expected to receive a total salary of RUB 900.2 million (£35.7 million) after income tax, making Eto'o the second highest-earning athlete in the world and the highest-paid footballer in the world followed by Lionel Messi and Zlatan Ibrahimović.[11][21][22]


The average salary of a player in the German Bundesliga was about €3.3 million (£2.5 million) for the 2010–11 season, up from €2.5 million in the 2009–2010 Bundesliga season.[23] The highest-paid player for the 2010–11 Bundesliga season was Franck Ribéry of Bayern Munich who received a salary of €6.3 million after income tax.[24]

Serie A

In the Italian top league, Serie A, the average salary was about €5 million for the 2010–2011 Serie A season, up from €1 million in the 2005–2006 Serie A season.[25] The highest-paid player for the 2010–2011 Serie A season was Zlatan Ibrahimović of A.C. Milan who received a salary of €25.9 million after income tax and which also includes Ibrahimović's bonuses and endorsements.[26]

La Liga

Lionel Messi of FC Barcelona is the world's second highest-paid player receiving a salary of £29.6 million (over US$45 million) a year after income taxation and which also includes the incomes of Messi's bonuses and endorsements.[27] In the Spanish La Liga, the average salary for the players of Lionel Messi's club FC Barcelona was €6.5 million for the 2010–2011 La Liga season, up from €5.5 million for the 2009–2010 La Liga season.[27]

Premier League

The average salary of a player in the English Premier League was about £2.6 million in the 2017–18 season,[28] compared with about £1.2 million in 2007–08 and £676,000 in 2006–07. Even as early as 2010–11, top players such as John Terry and Steven Gerrard could make up to £7 million per year with the players of Premier League club Manchester City F.C. receiving an average salary of £2 million in that season.[29][30] Premier League salaries have boomed in more recent years thanks to massive television deals and wealthy new investors in clubs.[28] Terry's and Gerrard's 2010–11 salaries would not have placed them among the top 25 earners in 2017–18. In that season, more than 20 players earned more than £10 million, led by Alexis Sánchez (£21.5 million) and Mesut Özil (£20.9 million).[31] The Premier League's two Manchester clubs had the highest average salaries in 2017–18, with players for both Manchester United and Manchester City averaging over £5.2 million.[28]

Players in lower divisions make significantly less money. In 2006–07 the average salary of a player in the Championship (the second tier of the English football pyramid) made £195,750 while the average salary for League One and League Two (tiers 3 and 4) combined were £49,600.[29]

Major League Soccer

The highest salary in Major League Soccer in 2018 is the $7.1 million paid to Italian international Sebastian Giovinco, who plays for Toronto FC.[32] Giovinco was signed as a beneficiary of MLS' Designated Player Rule, which was instituted in 2007 for the express purpose of attracting international stars. Now-retired English star David Beckham was the first player signed under its provisions.[33] When the rule was instituted, each team had one "Designated Player" slot with a salary cap charge of $400,000, but no limit on actual salary paid.[33] Since then, the number of Designated Players per team has increased to three, with each counting for $504,375 of cap room in 2018.[34] The league's average salary was about $283,000 per year in 2015, but the median salary was then closer to $110,000.[35] MLS' minimum player salary in 2018 is $67,500 for most players, and for players on the reserve roster (slots #25-28) the minimum salary is $54,500.[34]


In 1970, the average salary in Major League Baseball in the U.S. and Canada was $20,000 ($129,032 inflation-adjusted). By 2005, the average salary had increased to $2,632,655 ($3,377,281 inflation-adjusted) and the minimum salary was $316,000 (adjusted: $405,378).[36] In 2012 the average MLB salary was $3,440,000, the median salary was $1,075,000, and the minimum salary had grown to four times the inflation-adjusted average salary in 1970 ($480,000).[37]

See also

Anexo:Final de la Copa Mundial de Fútbol de 2018Liga de Campeones de la UEFA 2018-19Copa Mundial de Críquet de 2019Copa Mundial Femenina de Fútbol de 20192019 Tour de FranceEsquí alpinoFútbol americanoArsenal Football ClubFútbolAtletaClub Atlético de MadridAugsburger PantherPelotaBall (association football)Ball badmintonBéisbolPelota de béisbolBateBaloncestoBasketball courtBat-and-ball gamesVoleibol de playaBanco (entrenamiento con pesas)Press de bancaFreno de bicicletaAnclaje para bicicletasMesa de billarBobsleighBorussia DortmundBolosBola de bowlingBoxeoCompetitionCríquetCurlingDiving suitHípicaExercise machineDeporte extremoF. C. AugsburgoBayern de MúnichFishing baitFlorida Gators footballFútbol (homonimia)Casco de fútbol americanoFutbolistaFormula oneFree climbingGiro de ItaliaGrađanski Nogometni Klub Dinamo ZagrebGoal (ice hockey)GolfBola de golfGrandes VueltasGymCascoHockeyTurf (hípica)Hockey sobre hieloPatinaje sobre hieloIgman Olympic JumpsLiverpool F.CCasilleroManchester City Football ClubJuegos OlímpicosEstadio olímpicoOutdoor fitnessOutdoor gymOutdoor recreationFitnessLevantamiento de potenciaPremier LeagueSaco de boxeoRaquetaDescenso de ríosCiclismo en rutaRock climbingSistema de todos contra todosSocietà Sportiva Calcio NapoliEscafandra autónomaHombreras de fútbol americanoEliminación directaMonopatínMonopatinajeBota de esquíSnowboardingSoccer-specific stadiumDeporteEscafandra clásicaBicicleta estáticaFútbol de mesaTenis de mesaDeporte de equipoTenisCancha de tenisThrowing sportsTottenham Hotspur Football ClubTour de FranciaCinta de correrTSV 1860 MúnichBuceoRugby subacuáticoVoleibolVuelta a EspañaEstadio Metropolitano (Madrid)Entrenamiento con pesasWindsurfDeporte de inviernoEgan BernalNataciónCarrera a pieAdidasCarro de golfPalo de golfGolf coursePutterReglas del golfGolf stroke mechanicsMinigolfDeporte de combateArtes marciales mixtasLucha (deporte)Contact sportKarateSumoJudoTaekwondoBoxing styles and techniqueMuhammad Ali

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Sports List

Air sports
• Aerobatics
• Air racing
• Cluster ballooning
• Hopper ballooning

Wingsuit flying
• Gliding
• Hang gliding
• Powered hang glider
• Human powered aircraft
• Model aircraft
• Parachuting
• Banzai skydiving
• BASE jumping
• Skydiving
• Skysurfing
• Wingsuit flying
• Paragliding
• Powered paragliding
• Paramotoring
• Ultralight aviation

• Field archery
• Flight archery
• Gungdo
• Indoor archery
• Kyūdō
• Popinjay
• Target archery

Ball-over-net games
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Biribol
• Bossaball
• Fistball
• Footbag net
• Football tennis
• Footvolley
• Hooverball
• Jianzi
• Padel
• Peteca
• Pickleball
• Platform tennis
• Sepak takraw
• Sipa
• Throwball
• Volleyball
• Beach volleyball
• Water volleyball
• Paralympic volleyball
• Wallyball
• Ringo

Basketball family
• Basketball
• Beach basketball
• Deaf basketball
• Streetball
• Water basketball
• Wheelchair basketball
• Cestoball
• Korfball
• Netball
• Fastnet
• Indoor netball
• Ringball
• Slamball

Bat-and-ball (safe haven)
• Baseball
• Softball
• Slow pitch
• Fast-pitch softball
• 16-inch softball
• Bat and trap
• British baseball – four posts
• Brännboll – four bases
• Corkball – four bases (no base-running)
• Cricket – two creases
• Indoor cricket
• Limited overs cricket
• One Day International
• Test cricket
• Twenty20
• Danish longball
• Kickball
• Kilikiti
• Lapta – two salos (bases)
• The Massachusetts Game – four bases
• Matball
• Oina
• Old cat – variable
• Over-the-line – qv
• Palant
• Pesäpallo – four bases
• Punchball
• Rounders – four bases or posts
• Scrub baseball – four bases (not a team game per se)
• Stickball – variable
• Stool ball – two stools
• Tee-ball
• Town ball – variable
• Vigoro – two wickets
• Wireball
• Wiffleball

Baton twirling
• Baton twirling

Acro sports
• Ballet
• Dancing
• Cheerleading
• Gymnastics

Performance sports
• Drum corps
• Marching band

Board sports

• Skateboarding
• Scootering
• Casterboarding
• Freeboard (skateboard)
• Longboarding
• Streetboarding
• Skysurfing
• Streetluge
• Snowboarding
• Mountainboarding
• Sandboarding
• Snowkiting
• Surfing
• Wakesurfing
• Bodyboarding
• Riverboarding
• Skimboarding
• Windsurfing
• Wakeboarding
• Kneeboarding
• Paddleboarding

Catch games
• Dodgeball
• Ga-ga
• Keep away
• Kin-Ball
• Newcomb ball
• Quidditch
• Rundown (a.k.a. Pickle)
• Yukigassen


• Abseiling
• Aid climbing
• Ice climbing
• Mixed climbing
• Mountaineering
• Rock climbing
• Bouldering
• Deep-water soloing
• Sport climbing
• Traditional climbing
• Other
• Canyoning (Canyoneering)
• Coasteering
• Hiking
• Rope climbing
• Pole climbing


• Artistic cycling
• Cyclo-cross
• Cross-country mountain biking
• Cycle polo
• Cycle speedway
• Downhill mountain biking
• Dirt jumping
• Enduro mountain biking
• Freestyle BMX
• Hardcourt Bike Polo
• Road bicycle racing
• Track cycling
• Underwater cycling

• Skibobbing


• Mountain unicycling
• Unicycling
• Unicycle basketball
• Unicycle hockey
• Unicycle trials
Combat sports: wrestling and martial arts
• Aiki-jūjutsu
• Aikido
• Jujutsu
• Judo
• Brazilian jiu-jitsu
• Sambo (martial art)
• Sumo
• Wrestling
• Amateur wrestling
• Greco-Roman wrestling
• Freestyle wrestling
• Folk wrestling
• Boli Khela
• Collar-and-elbow
• Cornish wrestling
• Dumog
• Glima
• Gouren
• Kurash
• Lancashire wrestling
• Catch wrestling
• Malla-yuddha
• Mongolian wrestling
• Pehlwani
• Professional wrestling
• Schwingen
• Shuai jiao
• Ssireum
• Varzesh-e Pahlavani
• Yağlı Güreş
• Greek wrestling


• Choi Kwang-Do
• Cockfighting
• Boxing
• Bokator
• Capoeira
• Fujian White Crane
• Karate
• Kenpō
• Kickboxing
• Lethwei
• Muay Thai
• Pradal serey
• Sanshou
• Savate
• Shaolin Kung Fu
• Sikaran
• Silat
• Subak
• Taekkyeon
• Taekwondo
• Taidō
• Tang Soo Do
• Wing Chun
• Zui quan

Mixed or hybrid
• Baguazhang
• Bando
• Bartitsu
• Bujinkan
• Hapkido
• Hwa Rang Do
• Jeet Kune Do
• Kajukenbo
• Kalaripayattu
• Krav Maga
• Kuk Sool Won
• Marine Corps Martial Arts Program
• Mixed martial arts
• Northern Praying Mantis
• Ninjutsu
• Pankration
• Pencak Silat
• Sanshou
• Shidōkan Karate
• Shōrin-ryū Shidōkan
• Shoot boxing
• Shootfighting
• Shorinji Kempo
• Systema
• T'ai chi ch'uan
• Vajra-mushti
• Vale tudo
• Vovinam
• Xing Yi Quan
• Zen Bu Kan Kempo

• Axe throwing
• Battōjutsu
• Boffer fighting
• Eskrima
• Egyptian stick fencing
• Fencing
• Gatka
• Hojōjutsu
• Iaidō
• Iaijutsu
• Jōdō
• Jogo do pau
• Jūkendō
• Jittejutsu
• Kendo
• Kenjutsu
• Krabi–krabong
• Kung fu
• Kyūdō
• Kyūjutsu
• Modern Arnis
• Naginatajutsu
• Nguni stick-fighting
• Okinawan kobudō
• Shurikenjutsu
• Silambam
• Sōjutsu
• Sword fighting
• Wushu
• Kumdo
• Wing Chun

• Airsoft
• Laser tag
• Paintball

Cue sports
• Carom billiards
• Three-cushion
• Five-pins
• Balkline and straight rail
• Cushion caroms
• Four-ball (yotsudama)
• Artistic billiards
• Novuss (and cued forms of carrom)
• Pocket billiards (pool)
• Eight-ball
• Blackball (a.k.a. British eight-ball pool)
• Nine-ball
• Straight pool (14.1 continuous)
• One-pocket
• Three-ball
• Seven-ball
• Ten-ball
• Rotation
• Baseball pocket billiards
• Cribbage (pool)
• Bank pool
• Artistic pool
• Trick shot competition
• Speed pool
• Bowlliards
• Chicago
• Kelly pool
• Cutthroat
• Killer
• Russian pyramid
• Snooker
• Sinuca brasileira
• Six-red snooker
• Snooker plus
• Hybrid carom–pocket games
• English billiards
• Bottle pool
• Cowboy
• Obstacle variations
• Bagatelle
• Bar billiards
• Bumper pool
• Table Sports
• Foosball

Equine sports
• Buzkashi
• Barrel racing
• Campdrafting
• Cirit
• Charreada
• Chilean rodeo
• Cross country
• Cutting
• Dressage
• Endurance riding
• English pleasure
• Equitation
• Eventing
• Equestrian vaulting
• Gymkhana
• Harness racing
• Horse racing
• Horseball
• Hunter
• Hunter-jumpers
• Jousting
• Pato
• Reining
• Rodeo
• Show jumping
• Steeplechase
• Team penning
• Tent pegging
• Western pleasure

• Angling
• Big-game fishing
• Casting
• Noodling
• Spearfishing
• Sport fishing
• Surf fishing
• Rock fishing
• Fly fishing
• Ice fishing

Flying disc sports

• Beach ultimate
• Disc dog
• Disc golf
• Disc golf (urban)
• Dodge disc
• Double disc court
• Flutterguts
• Freestyle
• Freestyle competition
• Goaltimate
• Guts
• Hot box
• Ultimate


• Ancient games
• Chinlone
• Cuju
• Episkyros
• Harpastum
• Kemari
• Ki-o-rahi
• Marn Grook
• Woggabaliri
• Yubi lakpi
• Medieval football
• Ba game
• Caid
• Calcio Fiorentino
• Camping (game)
• Chester-le-Street
• Cnapan
• Cornish hurling
• Haxey Hood
• Knattleikr
• La soule
• Lelo burti
• Mob football
• Royal Shrovetide Football
• Uppies and Downies
• Association football
• Jorkyball
• Paralympic football
• Powerchair Football
• Reduced variants
• Five-a-side football
• Beach soccer
• Futebol de Salão
• Futsal
• Papi fut
• Indoor soccer
• Masters Football
• Street football
• Freestyle football
• Keepie uppie
• Swamp football
• Three sided football
• Australian football
• Nine-a-side footy
• Rec footy
• Metro footy
• English school games
• Eton College
• Field game
• Wall game
• Harrow football
• Gaelic football
• Ladies' Gaelic football
• Gridiron football
• American football
• Eight-man football
• Flag football
• Indoor football
• Arena football
• Nine-man football
• Six-man football
• Sprint football
• Touch football
• Canadian football
• Street football (American)
• Rugby football
• Beach rugby
• Rugby league
• Masters Rugby League
• Mod league
• Rugby league nines
• Rugby league sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch football
• Wheelchair rugby league
• Rugby union
• American flag rugby
• Mini rugby
• Rugby sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch rugby
• Rugby tens
• Snow rugby
• Hybrid codes
• Austus
• Eton wall game
• International rules football
• Samoa rules
• Speedball
• Universal football
• Volata


• Miniature golf
• Match play
• Skins game
• Speed golf
• Stroke play
• Team play
• Shotgun start


• Acrobatic gymnastics
• Aerobic gymnastics
• Artistic gymnastics
• Balance beam
• Floor
• High bar
• Parallel bars
• Pommel horse
• Still rings
• Uneven bars
• Vault
• Juggling
• Rhythmic gymnastics
• Ball
• Club
• Hoop
• Ribbon
• Rope
• Rope jumping
• Slacklining
• Trampolining
• Trapeze
• Flying trapeze
• Static trapeze
• Tumbling

Handball family
• Goalball
• Hitbal
• Tchoukball
• Team handball
• Beach handball
• Czech handball
• Field handball
• Torball
• Water polo


• Beagling
• Big game hunting
• Deer hunting
• Fox hunting
• Hare coursing
• Wolf hunting

Ice sports
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Curling
• Ice hockey
• Ringette
• Ice yachting
• Figure skating

Kite sports
• Kite buggy
• Kite fighting
• Kite landboarding
• Kitesurfing
• Parasailing
• Snow kiting
• Sport kite (Stunt kite)

Mixed discipline
• Adventure racing
• Biathlon
• Duathlon
• Decathlon
• Heptathlon
• Icosathlon
• Modern pentathlon
• Pentathlon
• Tetrathlon
• Triathlon

Orienteering family
• Geocaching
• Orienteering
• Rogaining
• Letterboxing
• Waymarking

Pilota family
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Jai alai
• Fives
• Eton Fives
• Rugby Fives
• Frisian handball
• Four square
• Gaelic handball
• Jeu de paume
• Palla
• Patball
• Valencian pilota

Racquet (or racket) sports
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Basque pelota
• Frontenis
• Xare
• Beach tennis
• Fives
• Matkot
• Padel
• Paleta Frontón
• Pelota mixteca
• Pickleball
• Platform tennis
• Qianball
• Racketlon
• Racquetball
• Racquets
• Real tennis
• Soft tennis
• Speed-ball
• Speedminton
• Squash
• Hardball squash
• Squash tennis
• Stické
• Table tennis
• Tennis
Remote control
• Model aerobatics
• RC racing
• Robot combat
• Slot car racing

• Bullriding
• Barrel Racing
• Bronc Riding
• Saddle Bronc Riding
• Roping
• Calf Roping
• Team Roping
• Steer Wrestling
• Goat Tying

• Endurance
• 5K run
• 10K run
• Cross-country running
• Half marathon
• Marathon
• Road running
• Tower running
• Ultramarathon
• Sprint
• Hurdles

Sailing / Windsurfing
• Ice yachting
• Land sailing
• Land windsurfing
• Sailing
• Windsurfing
• Kiteboarding
• Dinghy sailing

Snow sports
• Alpine skiing
• Freestyle skiing
• Nordic combined
• Nordic skiing
• Cross-country skiing
• Telemark skiing
• Ski jumping
• Ski touring
• Skijoring
• Speed skiing

Sled sports

• Bobsleigh
• Luge
• Skibobbing
• Skeleton
• Toboggan

Shooting sports
• Clay pigeon shooting
• Skeet shooting
• Trap shooting
• Sporting clays
• Target shooting
• Field target
• Fullbore target rifle
• High power rifle
• Benchrest shooting
• Metallic silhouette
• Practical shooting
• Cowboy action shooting
• Metallic silhouette shooting
• Card stacking
• Dice stacking
• Sport stacking

Stick and ball games
• Hornussen

• Hockey
• Ball hockey
• Bando
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Moscow broomball
• Field hockey
• Indoor field hockey
• Floorball
• Ice hockey

Ice hockey 
 • Pond hockey
• Power hockey
• Ringette
• Sledge hockey
• Underwater ice hockey
• Roller hockey
• Inline hockey
• Roller hockey (Quad)
• Skater hockey
• Rossall Hockey
• Spongee
• Street hockey
• Underwater hockey
• Unicycle hockey

Hurling and shinty
• Cammag
• Hurling
• Camogie
• Shinty
• Composite rules shinty-hurling

• Lacrosse
• Box lacrosse
• Field lacrosse
• Women's lacrosse
• Intercrosse

• Polo
 • Bicycle polo
• Canoe polo
• Cowboy polo
• Elephant polo
• Horse polo
• Segway polo
• Yak polo

Street sports
• Free running
• Freestyle footbag
• Freestyle football
• Powerbocking
• Parkour
• Scootering
• Street workout

Tag games

• British bulldogs (American Eagle)
• Capture the flag
• Hana Ichi Monme
• Hide and seek
• Jugger
• Kabaddi
• Kho kho
• Kick the can
• Oztag
• Red rover
• Tag

• Hiking
• Backpacking (wilderness)
• Racewalking
• Bushwhacking
• Walking

• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Butts Up
• Chinese handball
• Fives
• Gaelic handball
• International fronton
• Jorkyball
• Racquetball
• Squash
• Squash tennis
• Suicide (game)
• Valencian frontó
• Wallball
• Wallyball

Aquatic & paddle sports
• Creeking
• Flyak
• Freeboating
• Sea kayaking
• Squirt boating
• Surf kayaking
• Whitewater kayaking

• Rafting
• White water rafting

• Rowing (sport)
• Gig racing
• Coastal and ocean rowing
• Surfboat
• Single scull
Other paddling sports
• Dragon boat racing
• Stand up paddle boarding
• Water polo
• Canoe polo
• Waboba

• Underwater football
• Underwater rugby
• Underwater hockey

Competitive swimming
• Backstroke
• Breaststroke
• Butterfly stroke
• Freestyle swimming
• Individual medley
• Synchronized swimming
• Medley relay

Kindred activities
• Bifins (finswimming)
• Surface finswimming

Subsurface and recreational
• Apnoea finswimming
• Aquathlon (underwater wrestling)
• Freediving
• Immersion finswimming
• Scuba diving
• Spearfishing
• Snorkelling
• Sport diving (sport)
• Underwater hockey
• Underwater orienteering
• Underwater photography (sport)
• Underwater target shooting
• Cliff diving
• Diving

• Basque traditional weightlifting
• Bodybuilding
• Highland games
• Olympic weightlifting
• Powerlifting
• Strength athletics (strongman)
• Steinstossen

Motorized sports
• Autocross (a.k.a. Slalom)
• Autograss
• Banger racing
• Board track racing
• Demolition derby
• Desert racing
• Dirt track racing
• Drag racing
• Drifting
• Folkrace
• Formula racing
• Formula Libre
• Formula Student
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Kart racing
• Land speed records
• Legends car racing
• Midget car racing
• Monster truck
• Mud bogging
• Off-road racing
• Pickup truck racing
• Production car racing
• Race of Champions
• Rally raid
• Rallycross
• Rallying
• Regularity rally
• Road racing
• Short track motor racing
• Snowmobile racing
• Sports car racing
• Sprint car racing
• Street racing
• Stock car racing
• Time attack
• Tractor pulling
• Touring car racing
• Truck racing
• Vintage racing
• Wheelstand competition

Motorboat racing
• Drag boat racing
• F1 powerboat racing
• Hydroplane racing
• Jet sprint boat racing
• Offshore powerboat racing
• Personal water craft

Motorcycle racing
• Auto Race
• Board track racing
• Cross-country rally
• Endurance racing
• Enduro
• Freestyle motocross
• Grand Prix motorcycle racing
• Grasstrack
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Ice speedway
• Indoor enduro
• Motocross
• Motorcycle drag racing
• Motorcycle speedway
• Off-roading
• Rally raid
• Road racing
• Superbike racing
• Supercross
• Supermoto
• Supersport racing
• Superside
• Track racing
• Trial
• TT racing
• Free-style moto

Marker sports
• Airsoft
• Archery
• Paintball
• Darts

Musical sports
• Color guard
• Drum corps
• Indoor percussion
• Marching band

Fantasy sports
• Quidditch
• Hunger Games(Gladiating)
• Pod Racing
• Mortal Kombat(MMA)

• Stihl Timbersports Series
• Woodsman

Overlapping sports
• Tennis
• Polocrosse
• Badminton
• Polo

Skating sports
• Aggressive inline skating
• Artistic roller skating
• Figure skating
• Freestyle slalom skating
• Ice dancing
• Ice skating
• Inline speed skating
• Rinkball
• Rink hockey
• Roller derby
• Roller skating
• Short track speed skating
• Skater hockey
• Speed skating
• Synchronized skating

Freestyle skiing
• Snowboarding
• Ski flying
• Skibob
• Snowshoeing
• Skiboarding