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A carousel (American English: from French carrousel and Italian carosello), roundabout (British English), or merry-go-round, invented by Paul Bussler, is an amusement ride consisting of a rotating circular platform with seats for riders. The "seats" are traditionally in the form of rows of wooden horses or other animals mounted on posts, many of which are moved up and down by gears to simulate galloping, to the accompaniment of looped circus music. This leads to one of the alternative American names, the galloper. Other popular names are jumper, horseabout and flying horses. Carousels are commonly populated with horses, each horse weighing roughly 100 lbs (45 kg), but may include a variety of mounts, for example pigs, zebras, tigers or mythological creatures such as dragons or unicorns. Sometimes, chairlike or bench like seats are used and occasionally mounts can be shaped like aeroplanes or cars. The "roundabouts" or "merry-go-rounds" installed in playgrounds are usually somewhat different devices: simple, child-powered rotating platforms with bars or handles to which children can cling while riding.
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Explanation by Hotspot Model



A carousel (American English: from French carrousel and Italian carosello), roundabout (British English),[1] or merry-go-round, invented by Paul Bussler, is an amusement ride consisting of a rotating circular platform with seats for riders. The "seats" are traditionally in the form of rows of wooden horses or other animals mounted on posts, many of which are moved up and down by gears to simulate galloping, to the accompaniment of looped circus music.[citation needed] This leads to one of the alternative American names, the galloper. Other popular names are jumper, horseabout and flying horses.[citation needed]

Carousels are commonly populated with horses, each horse weighing roughly 100 lbs (45 kg), but may include a variety of mounts,[2] for example pigs, zebras, tigers or mythological creatures such as dragons or unicorns. Sometimes, chairlike or bench like seats are used and occasionally mounts can be shaped like aeroplanes or cars.

The "roundabouts" or "merry-go-rounds" installed in playgrounds are usually somewhat different devices: simple, child-powered rotating platforms with bars or handles to which children can cling while riding.


Early carousels

The modern carousel emerged from early jousting traditions in Europe and the Middle East. Knights would gallop in a circle while tossing balls from one to another; an activity that required great skill and horsemanship.[citation needed] This game was introduced to Europe at the time of the Crusades from earlier Byzantine and Arab traditions. The word carousel originated from the Italian garosello and Spanish carosella ("little battle", used by crusaders to describe a combat preparation exercise and game played by Turkish and Arabian horsemen in the 12th century).[3] This early device was essentially a cavalry training mechanism; it prepared and strengthened the riders for actual combat as they wielded their swords at the mock enemies.

By the 17th century, the balls had been dispensed with, and instead the riders had to spear small rings that were hanging from poles overhead and rip them off. Cavalry spectacles that replaced medieval jousting, such as the ring-tilt, were popular in Italy and France. The game began to be played by commoners, and carousels soon sprung up at fairgrounds across Europe. At the Place du Carrousel in Paris, an early make believe carousel was set up with wooden horses for the children.[4]

By the early 18th century carousels were being built and operated at various fairs and gatherings in central Europe and England. Animals and mechanisms would be crafted during the winter months and the family and workers would go touring in their wagon train through the region, operating their large menagerie carousel at various venues. Makers included Heyn in Germany and Bayol in France. These early carousels had no platforms; the animals would hang from chains and fly out from the centrifugal force of the spinning mechanism. They were often powered by animals walking in a circle or people pulling a rope or cranking.

Direction of rotation

Viewed from above, in the United Kingdom, merry-go-rounds usually turn clockwise (from the outside, animals face to the left), while in North America and Mainland Europe, carousels typically go counterclockwise (animals face to the right).[5]

Modern carousels

By the mid-19th century the platform carousel was developed; the animals and chariots were fixed to a circular floor that would suspend from a centre pole and rotate around. These carousels were called dobbies and were operated manually by the operator or by ponies.

In mid-19th century England, the carousel became a popular fixture at fairs. The first steam-powered mechanical roundabout, invented by Thomas Bradshaw, appeared at the Aylsham Fair in about 1861. It was described by a Halifax Courier journalist as "a roundabout of huge proportions, driven by a steam engine which whirled around with such impetuousity, that the wonder is the daring riders are not shot off like cannon- ball, and driven half into the middle of next month."[6]

Soon afterwards, the engineer Frederick Savage began to branch out of agricultural machinery production into the construction of fairground machines, swiftly becoming the chief innovator in the field. By 1870, he was manufacturing carousels with Velocipedes (an early type of bicycle) and he soon began experimenting with other possibilities, including a roundabout with boats that would pitch and roll on cranks with a circular motion, a ride he called 'Sea-on-Land'.[7]

He soon applied a similar innovation to the more traditional mount of the horse; he installed gears and offset cranks on the platform carousels, thus giving the animals their well-known up-and-down motion as they travelled around the center pole. The platform served as a position guide for the bottom of the pole and as a place for people to walk or other stationary animals or chariots to be placed. He called this ride the 'Platform Gallopers' . He also developed the 'platform-slide' which allowed the mounts to swing out concentrically as the carousel built up speed. Fairground organs (band organs) were often present (if not built in) when these machines operated. Eventually electric motors were installed and electric lights added, giving the carousel its classic look.

Carousel built in 1905 by Gustav Dentzel which is still operational in Rochester, New York.

These mechanical innovations came at a crucial time, when increased prosperity meant that more people had time for leisure and spare money to spend on entertainment. It was in this historical context that the modern fairground ride was born, with Savage supplying this new market demand. In his 1902 Catalogue for Roundabouts he claimed to have "... patented and placed upon the market all the principal novelties that have delighted the many thousands of pleasure seekers at home and abroad."[8]

In the United States, the carousel industry was developed by immigrants, notably Gustav Dentzel of Germany and Charles W.F. Dare from England, from the late 19th century. Several centers and styles for the construction of carousels emerged in the United States: Coney Island style – characterized by elaborate, and sometimes faux-jeweled, saddles[9] – with Charles I. D. Looff; Philadelphia style – known for more realistically painted saddles – with Dentzel and the Philadelphia Toboggan Company; and Country Fair style – often with no saddles at all – with Allan Herschell and Edward Spillman of western New York, and Charles W. Parker of Kansas. The golden age of the carousel in America was the early 20th century, with large machines and elaborate animals, chariots, and decorations being built.

Similar uses of the term "carousel"

On some playgrounds, small manually powered carousels exist.

At airports, rotating conveyors in the baggage claim area are often called luggage carousels.[10]

Various photographic slide projectors, notably those made by Kodak until 2004, used rotating trays or magazines called carousels to hold the slides and were often known as "carousel projectors."

Antique & notable carousels

The National Carousel Association maintains a list of Historic Carousel Award winners, primarily focused on carousels in Canada and America.[11]


  • The oldest existing carousel made in 1779 to 1780 stands in Germany at the Wilhelmsbad Park in Hanau.[12]


Notable carousels built 1870–1879
Name Year Location Builder Brass ring Notes Image References
Charles Looff Carroussel 1875 Coney Island, New York Looff First carousel and amusement ride at Coney Island. Installed at Mrs. Lucy Vanderveer's Bathing Pavilion in 1876. [citation needed]
Flying Horses Carousel 1876 Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts Charles Dare The nation’s oldest platform carousel has been designated by the U.S. Department of the Interior as a national landmark. Constructed in 1876 by Charles Dare, it is one of only two Dare carousels still in existence. Originally operated at a Coney Island, NY amusement park, it was moved to Oak Bluffs in 1884, where it has lived in its red barn, delighting generations of Island residents and visitors ever since. The carousel was acquired by the Martha's Vineyard Preservation Trust in 1986 to prevent it from being dismantled and sold piecemeal to collectors of antique carved horses. [citation needed]
Flying Horse Carousel 1876 Watch Hill, Westerly, Rhode Island Charles Dare Built in 1876 and listed as a National Historic Landmark. It is one of two Charles Dare carousels in existence. It is considered the oldest of its type "in which the horses are suspended from a center frame," as opposed to being mounted on a wooden platform, which causes the horses to "fly" as the carousel gains speed. [13]
Melbourne Zoo Carousel 1878 Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Built in 1878 in England and imported to Australia in the 1880s by John Briggs, an ancestor of Dorrie Freeman. The Carousel traveled the show circuit until 1963 when it finally arrived at Melbourne Zoo. Restoration completed 2005. [14][15]


Notable carousels built 1880–1889
Name Year Location Builder Brass ring Notes Image References
Le Galopant 1885 La Ronde, Montreal The oldest galloping carousel in the world. Built in 1885 in Bressoux by Belgian craftsmen, it stayed there until 1964 when it moved to New York for their World’s Fair. For Expo 67 it came to Montreal as part of the rides featured in La Ronde. In 2003, the Carousel underwent a meticulous restoration under the current park ownership, Six Flags. More than $1 million was spent to refurbish the ride, which reopened in a new specially landscaped garden in 2007. [16][17]


Notable carousels built 1890–1899
Name Year Location Builder Brass ring Notes Image References
Darling Harbor Carousel c.1890s Tumbalong Park, Darling Harbour, Sydney A New South Wales Heritage listed attraction. It is an example of an old Edwardian Carousel which are very rare nowadays. It is operated by a classic steam engine which has been retained. The Carousel dates back to the 'Golden Age' of Carousels between the 1890s to the 1920s. First imported to Australia in 1894. [18]
Stoomcarrousel c.1895-1903 Efteling. Kaatsheuvel. Brabant. The Netherlands Hendrik Janvier The stoomcarrousel build betweem 1895 & 1903 has been build by designer Hendrik Janvier. Janvier, born in 1968, is the progenitor of the famouse Dutch funfair-familiy Janvier and is seen as the founder of the Stoomcarrousel tradition. He used tons of tools from different fabricants, because there didn't excist a official stoomcarrouselfabrics yet. This has never come either. Stoomcarrousels grown organic, they've mayde step by step some slow edits & upgrades. Years after 1903 there we're still made upgrades en renovations.

Today the day, this old stoomcarrousel is located in the Efteling (Themepark). In 1955 the Efteling bought the ride for ƒ 15.475,-. (Gulden) from family Janvier. It reopened in 1956. In the beginning the price for a ticket to make a ride, was only 0.05 cents (5 Cents)

Aditional information: Before the purchase by the Efteling. The Stoomcarrousel was named is 'Stoomcaroussel' . (1 r & 2 s')

Contains: 22 Horses, 4 Coaching's, 2 Pigs & 2 clowns.

Music played by: 1 Gavioli organ

Engine: Fam. König, Swalmen,

Steam Gallopers 1895 Carters Steam Fair (traveling) Robert Tidman & Sons of Norwich Run on steam to this day [19]
Crescent Park Looff Carousel 1895 Crescent Park, East Providence, Rhode Island Looff Still operates in its original location. The 61 horses, one camel, and four chariots have been restored and the ride renovated. Charles I. D. Looff used this carousel as a showpiece for prospective customers. This is one of the few carousels that feature a ring-arm with steel rings and a brass ring. The original A. Ruth & Sohn organ still plays music for the patrons. [citation needed]


Notable carousels built 1900–1909
Name Year Location Builder Brass ring Notes Image References
Pullen Park Carousel 1900 Pullen Park, Raleigh, North Carolina Dentzel 52 wooden animals carved by Salvatore Cernigliaro. Added to National Register of Historic Places in 1976. [20]
Forest Park Carousel 1903 Woodhaven section of the New York City borough of Queens Muller Brothers One of only two surviving Muller brothers carousels, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. [21][22]
Dentzel Menagerie Carousel 1905 Ontario Beach Park in Rochester, New York Dentzel Still in operation, the historic Dentzel Menagerie Carousel is one of only fourteen operating antique menagerie carousels in the United States. [23]
Lakeside Park Carousel 1905 Historic Lakeside Park in Port Dalhousie, Ontario, Canada Looff Brought to St. Catharines in 1921. It continues to provide amusement for young and old alike, at just 5 cents a ride. [24]
Children's Creativity Museum Carousel 1906 Children's Creativity Museum in Yerba Buena Gardens, San Francisco Looff Sent to Seattle after the 1906 earthquake and returned to serve at Playland-at-the-Beach until that park's demise in 1972. [25]
Centreville Carousel 1907 Centreville Amusement Park, Toronto Islands, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Dentzel Carousel Company Acquired from Bushkill Park in Easton, Pennsylvania in 1966 and later sold to Carmel, Indiana in 2017. [26]
Heritage Carousel 1908 Heritage Museums and Gardens in Sandwich, Massachusetts Looff Electrically powered. Originally built for a park in Meridian, Mississippi; acquired by Josiah K. Lilly III in 1968 and reassembled at Heritage Museums & Gardens in 1972. [27]
Riverfront Park Carousel 1909 Riverfront Park in Spokane, Washington Looff Originally installed at the Natatorium Park in Spokane. [28]
Albany Carousel and Museum 1909 Downtown Albany, Oregon Dentzel Dentzel Menagerie Carousel completely rebuilt in the downtown area of Albany, Oregon, completion date set for June 2017. The carousel is housed in a state of the art 22,000 square foot facility which includes a complete artist studio for the creation of additional animals. Construction used old growth timber that was completely re-manufactured from the previous building that housed the carving studio circa 1920. [29]


Notable carousels built 1910–1919
Name Year Location Builder Brass ring Notes Image References
Balboa Park Carousel 1910 Balboa Park, San Diego, California Herschell-Spillman Initially shipped to Los Angeles and arrived in the San Diego area in 1915. In Balboa Park since 1922. [30]
Santa Cruz Looff Carousel 1911 Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, Santa Cruz, California Looff One of the few carousels still in its original location for more than 100 years. It is a "pure carousel" meaning all of the horses were provided by the same company that built the carousel. It is also one of the few with the rare combination of a working ring dispenser and outside row jumping horses. The carousel features three band organs including a rare Ruth & Sohn 96-key organ with 342 pipes. The Looff carousel was designated a national historic landmark in 1987. [31]
Tilden Park Carousel 1911 Tilden Park in Berkeley, California Herschell-Spillman Built in 1911 by the Herschell-Spillman Company and is one of the few carousels from its day still in operation. In 1976 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [32][33]
Merry-Go-Round Steam Gallopers 1912 Hollycombe Steam Collection (traveling) Tidman of Norwich A working steam driven Merry-Go-Round with 3-abreast Steam Gallopers. It has 24 horses, six cockerels and two chariots (for those who don't relish the galloping motion). It is driven by a steam centre engine, also Tidman, and has revolving pillars, which are believed to be the only ones still operating. Musical accompaniment is driven by a slotted card Tidman organ engine. [34]
Nunley's Carousel 1912 Cradle of Aviation Museum, Garden City, New York Stein and Goldstein Artistic Carousel Co. Operated at Nunley's Amusement Park, Baldwin, N.Y. until that park's closure in 1995. Subsequently, purchased by Nassau County and placed in storage. It was fully restored and opened in 2009 at the Cradle of Aviation Museum in Garden City, N.Y. [35]
Cafesjian's Carousel 1914 Como Park, Saint Paul, Minnesota A mainstay at the Minnesota State Fair from 1914 to 1988 when it was saved from the auction block by a non-profit group organized to save the landmark. The carousel is now located in Como Park in Saint Paul, Minnesota. [36]
Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome 1916 Santa Monica Pier, Santa Monica, California Philadelphia Toboggan Company Housed a carousel by Looff until it was sold in 1939. It was replaced by Philadelphia Toboggan Company Carousel #62, which was moved from the Ocean Park Pier. Since 1977, the carousel has been owned by the city. The building remains a rare example of structures that used to be on the amusement pier. It was restored from 1977 through 1981. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1987. [37][38]
Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum 1916 Herschell Carrousel Factory Museum, North Tonawanda, NY Herschell-Spillman Features two working carousels: The largest is a 1916 model that is 40 feet (12.2 m) in diameter, with 36 hand-carved horses and over 580 lights. The second is a small aluminum carousel specifically designed for children. The museum is located in the building complex which housed the Allan Herschell Company and is the only museum in the world housed inside an authentic carousel factory. [39]


Notable carousels built 1920–1929
Name Year Location Builder Brass ring Notes Image References
Grand Carousel 1926 Kennywood Park, West Mifflin, Pennsylvania Dentzel A National Historic Landmark. The music on this carousel is provided by a 1916 Wurlitzer Style #153 Military Band Organ and over 1500 lights decorate this ride. The carousel features 50 jumping and 14 stationary horses, a magnificent lion and tiger, and Dentzel's signature Jesters and Cherubs. [40]
Antique Carousel 1928 Canada's Wonderland in Toronto, Ontario Philadelphia Toboggan Company Originally located in Palisades Park, New Jersey the carousel was also used at Happyland Park or Hastings Park, Vancouver, British Columbia, and Palace Playland, Old Orchard Beach, Maine, before it was purchased by Taft Broadcasting in the 1970s and put into storage. It opened in its current location in 1981. [41][42]
Holyoke Merry-Go-Round 1929 Heritage State Park in Holyoke, MA Philadelphia Toboggan Company Originally assembled at the now shuttered Mountain Park. The carousel was reassembled and preserved (in full operation) at Heritage State Park with the help of John Hickey and the Holyoke Water Power Company in 1993. [43]


  • The King Arthur Carrousel has existed since 1932 and was moved to Disneyland in 1954. It is an assembly of two carousels. Walt Disney wanted it to have four courses of all jumpers. The remaining chariot woodwork was repurposed as the "Calliope" tenders of Casey Jr. Circus Train powered gravity coaster.[44]


  • The carousel at Harper Motors is an iconic landmark on the North Coast of California. It was bought by the dealerships owner Harvey Harper in 1991, after purchase this 1947 Allan Herschell Carousel was shipped to Oakland by train and drive to Eureka in a semi-truck. It took a year to assemble on site. It was refurbished and repainted in 2013 which caused the ride to be closed for a month. It is open daily free of charge to the public from 12-4 except on holidays and when inclement weather doesn't allow for riders.[45]

Unique and record breaking

  • The carousel at Phantasialand in Germany is one of the biggest in the world, made by Preston & Barbieri one historical amusement ride factory in Italy.[46]
  • The world's only two-row stationary carousel built from an original Dentzel blueprint left in existence,[47] the Highland Park Dentzel Carousel and Shelter Building, is located in Highland Park in Meridian, Mississippi.
  • In May 2005, William Henry Dentzel III, built the world's first solar-powered carousel. The carousel operates during Solfest at the Solar Living Institute in Hopland, California.[48][49]
  • There is only one carousel in the world that rides in a waving motion - "Over the Jumps: The Arkansas Carousel" in Little Rock, Arkansas. It is also the only remaining wooden track carousel built by the Herschell & Spillman Company, and one of only four track carousels still in existence.[citation needed]
  • The carousel at Conneaut Lake Park in Conneaut Lake, Pennsylvania is the last T.M. Harton Carousel that is still in operation and its Artizan band organ is one of two known of the same model in the world.[citation needed]
  • In 2007, SeaWorld Orlando opened Sea Carousel, Florida's first aquatic carousel.[citation needed]
  • In 2012, Buttonwood Park Zoo opened an Americana carousel by Chance Rides.
  • In 2013, Palm Beach International Equestrian Center opened a Bertazzon Venetian Carousel as part of the Winter Equestrian Festival (the first carousel to be used in events besides South Florida Fair and the first Palm Beach County carousel built by Bertazzon)
  • Binghamton, New York is considered the "Carousel Capital of the World" for the six original carousels in the Triple Cities area, donated by George F. Johnson, owner of the Endicott-Johnson Company early in the 20th century. These Carousels, manufactured by the Allen Hershell Company in the "country fair" style, were donated with the express stipulation that they would never charge admission for anyone to ride them. Apparently when Mr. Johnson was a child he was frequently too poor to ride the local carousel and he vowed this would never happen to another child in the area. The carousel at the Ross park zoo in Binghamton, NY does charge admission, in a way, as it requires the child to drop one piece of litter found in the park into a trash barrel in order to ride. This is all written on a plaque at the entrance to the carousel.{Greater Binghamton New York Convention and Visitors Bureau, visitbinghamton.org, March 2014}[citation needed]
  • The two double-decker Columbia Carousels built by Chance Rides and located at Six Flags Great America and California's Great America are the two tallest carousels in the world.[50]
  • The Merry-Go-Round at Bear Mountain State Park features hand-painted scenes of the Park and 42 hand-carved seats of native animals including black bear, wild turkey, deer, raccoon, skunk, Canada goose, fox, swan, bobcat, rabbit, and more.[51]
  • On Canada Day 2016, a new attraction was opened in Downtown Markham, Ontario. The Pride of Canada Carousel was commissioned by Christopher Bratty, current president of the real estate and development firm The Remington Group.[52] The carousel was produced and originally envisioned by Shelley M. Shier of Broadway Bound Fine Arts and Entertainment for The Remington Group.[53] The carousel sits inside a glass pavillon designed by Sheldon Levitt from Quardrangle Architects.[54] The carousel itself features 44 ride-able reusable material sculptures representing different elements of Canadian culture. It was designed by artist Patrick Amiot who worked with the Brass Ring Carousel Company to build the ride.[55]
  • Ice floe carousels have been constructed on frozen lakes.[56]
One of the carousels in Endicott, NY, West Endicott Park Carousel

Media references

  • In Mary Poppins, Mary, Bert, and the children ride a merry-go-round, then leave the carousel on their horses to go off on a fox hunt and a horse race.
  • In the film Charade, near the end, there is a scene where appears a carousel in the background with the music of the main theme, a parisian waltz composed by Henry Mancini (Charade carousel) played with bells.
  • In the film Logan's Run, the residents of a domed city of the future are doomed to die on their 30th birthday, unless they can be "renewed" in a ritual known as "carousel".

near the end, there is a scene where appears a carousel in the background with the music of the main theme, a parisian waltz composed by Henry Mancini (Charade carousel) played with bells.

  • In Something Wicked This Way Comes by Ray Bradbury, the carnival's carousel can cause riders to become younger or older depending on the direction, left and right in which they ride.
  • Carousel (1945) was a Broadway musical featuring hit songs such as "If I Loved You" and "You'll Never Walk Alone". The protagonist, Billy Bigelow, is a carousel barker.
  • In the dramatic climax scene of Alfred Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train (1951) the hero and the villain struggle on a carousel.
  • David Carradine's 1983 film Americana revolves around a Vietnam veteran's obsession with the restoration of an abandoned carousel.
  • In the Australian children's picture book The Carousel by Ursula Dubosarsky, illustrated by Walter di Qual, after an exhilarating ride on a carousel, a child has a semi-mystical vision of the carousel horses breaking free from the wheel and galloping across the world.[57]
  • The 1930s novelty song, The Merry-Go-Round Broke Down, is the theme song for the Looney Tunes series of cartoons by Warner Bros.
  • The classic children's television programme The Magic Roundabout uses a carousel as its central motif.
  • The 1990s children's TV show Playdays had a carousel called Rosie as the central motif for Wednesday episodes from 1992 to 1997, presented and maintained by Mr. Jolly.
  • The classic film The Sting features a large indoor carrousel adjacent a brothel, where the Madame allows the girls to ride on slow nights.
  • The ride is in all four RollerCoaster Tycoon games.
  • In the 2016 film Miss Peregrine's Home for Peculiar Children a carousel is featured along with other similar fairground on one of Blackpool's famous piers. The carousel appears when a character in the film that possesses the peculiarity of super strength rips a horse from the carousel and uses it to immobolize one of the other characters in the film known as a "Hollow".
  • MTV's Teen Wolf (Season 6, Ghosted) in a scene of a town called Canaan, a street fair was happening and there is a carousel with one of the horses covered in blood.


See also

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Carousel", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

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