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Ball (3384 views - Sports List)

A ball is a round object (usually spherical but sometimes ovoid) with various uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players. Balls can also be used for simpler activities, such as catch, marbles and juggling. Balls made from hard-wearing materials are used in engineering applications to provide very low friction bearings, known as ball bearings. Black-powder weapons use stone and metal balls as projectiles. Although many types of balls are today made from rubber, this form was unknown outside the Americas until after the voyages of Columbus. The Spanish were the first Europeans to see bouncing rubber balls (albeit solid and not inflated) which were employed most notably in the Mesoamerican ballgame. Balls used in various sports in other parts of the world prior to Columbus were made from other materials such as animal bladders or skins, stuffed with various materials. As balls are one of the most familiar spherical objects to humans, the word "ball" is used to refer to, or to describe, anything spherical or near-spherical.
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Explanation by Hotspot Model

Ball

Ball

A ball is a round object (usually spherical but sometimes ovoid)[1] with various uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players. Balls can also be used for simpler activities, such as catch, marbles and juggling. Balls made from hard-wearing materials are used in engineering applications to provide very low friction bearings, known as ball bearings. Black-powder weapons use stone and metal balls as projectiles.

Although many types of balls are today made from rubber, this form was unknown outside the Americas until after the voyages of Columbus. The Spanish were the first Europeans to see bouncing rubber balls (albeit solid and not inflated) which were employed most notably in the Mesoamerican ballgame. Balls used in various sports in other parts of the world prior to Columbus were made from other materials such as animal bladders or skins, stuffed with various materials.

As balls are one of the most familiar spherical objects to humans, the word "ball" is used to refer to, or to describe, anything spherical or near-spherical.

Etymology

The first known use of the word ball in English in the sense of a globular body that is played with was in 1205 in Laȝamon's Brut, or Chronicle of Britain in the phrase, "Summe heo driuen balles wide ȝeond Þa feldes." The word came from the Middle English bal (inflected as ball-e, -es, in turn from Old Norse böllr (pronounced [bɔlːr]; compare Old Swedish baller, and Swedish boll) from Proto-Germanic ballu-z, (whence probably Middle High German bal, ball-es, Middle Dutch bal), a cognate with Old High German ballo, pallo, Middle High German balle from Proto-Germanic *ballon (weak masculine), and Old High German ballâ, pallâ, Middle High German balle, Proto-Germanic *ballôn (weak feminine). No Old English representative of any of these is known. (The answering forms in Old English would have been beallu, -a, -e—compare bealluc, ballock.) If ball- was native in Germanic, it may have been a cognate with the Latin foll-is in sense of a "thing blown up or inflated." In the later Middle English spelling balle the word coincided graphically with the French balle "ball" and "bale" which has hence been erroneously assumed to be its source. French balle (but not boule) is assumed to be of Germanic origin, itself, however. In Ancient Greek the word πάλλα (palla) for "ball" is attested[2] besides the word "σφαίρα", sphere.[3]

History

A ball, as the essential feature in many forms of gameplay requiring physical exertion, must date from the very earliest times. A rolling object appeals not only to a human baby but to a kitten and a puppy. Some form of game with a ball is found portrayed on Egyptian monuments, and is played among aboriginal tribes at the present day. In Homer, Nausicaa was playing at ball with her maidens when Odysseus first saw her in the land of the Phaeacians (Od. vi. 100). And Halios and Laodamas performed before Alcinous and Odysseus with ball play, accompanied with dancing (Od. viii. 370).

Ancient Greeks

Among the Greeks games with balls (σφαῖραι) were regarded as a useful subsidiary to the more violent athletic exercises, as a means of keeping the body supple, and rendering it graceful, but were generally left to boys and girls. Of regular rules for the playing of ball games, little trace remains, if there were any such. The names in Greek for various forms, which have come down to us in such works as the Ὀνομαστικόν of Julius Pollux, imply little or nothing of such; thus, ἀπόρραξις (aporraxis) only means the putting of the ball on the ground with the open hand, οὐρανία (ourania), the flinging of the ball in the air to be caught by two or more players; φαινίνδα (phaininda) would seem to be a game of catch played by two or more, where feinting is used as a test of quickness and skill. Pollux (i. x. 104) mentions a game called episkyros (ἐπίσκυρος), which has often been looked on as the origin of football. It seems to have been played by two sides, arranged in lines; how far there was any form of "goal" seems uncertain.[4]

Ancient Romans

Among the Romans, ball games were looked upon as an adjunct to the bath, and were graduated to the age and health of the bathers, and usually a place (sphaeristerium) was set apart for them in the baths (thermae). There appear to have been three types or sizes of ball, the pila, or small ball, used in catching games, the paganica, a heavy ball stuffed with feathers, and the follis, a leather ball filled with air, the largest of the three. This was struck from player to player, who wore a kind of gauntlet on the arm. There was a game known as trigon, played by three players standing in the form of a triangle, and played with the follis, and also one known as harpastum, which seems to imply a "scrimmage" among several players for the ball. These games are known to us through the Romans, though the names are Greek.[4]

Modern ball games

The various modern games played with a ball or balls and subject to rules are treated under their various names, such as polo, cricket, football, etc.[4]

Round balls

Prolate spheroid balls

Several sports use a ball in the shape of a prolate spheroid:

See also



This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ball", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

Sports List

Air sports
• Aerobatics
• Air racing
• Cluster ballooning
• Hopper ballooning

Wingsuit flying
• Gliding
• Hang gliding
• Powered hang glider
• Human powered aircraft
• Model aircraft
• Parachuting
• Banzai skydiving
• BASE jumping
• Skydiving
• Skysurfing
• Wingsuit flying
• Paragliding
• Powered paragliding
• Paramotoring
• Ultralight aviation

Archery
• Field archery
• Flight archery
• Gungdo
• Indoor archery
• Kyūdō
• Popinjay
• Target archery

Ball-over-net games
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Biribol
• Bossaball
• Fistball
• Footbag net
• Football tennis
• Footvolley
• Hooverball
• Jianzi
• Padel
• Peteca
• Pickleball
• Platform tennis
• Sepak takraw
• Sipa
• Throwball
• Volleyball
• Beach volleyball
• Water volleyball
• Paralympic volleyball
• Wallyball
• Ringo


Basketball family
• Basketball
• Beach basketball
• Deaf basketball
• Streetball
• Water basketball
• Wheelchair basketball
• Cestoball
• Korfball
• Netball
• Fastnet
• Indoor netball
• Ringball
• Slamball

Bat-and-ball (safe haven)
• Baseball
• Softball
• Slow pitch
• Fast-pitch softball
• 16-inch softball
• Bat and trap
• British baseball – four posts
• Brännboll – four bases
• Corkball – four bases (no base-running)
• Cricket – two creases
• Indoor cricket
• Limited overs cricket
• One Day International
• Test cricket
• Twenty20
• Danish longball
• Kickball
• Kilikiti
• Lapta – two salos (bases)
• The Massachusetts Game – four bases
• Matball
• Oina
• Old cat – variable
• Over-the-line – qv
• Palant
• Pesäpallo – four bases
• Punchball
• Rounders – four bases or posts
• Scrub baseball – four bases (not a team game per se)
• Stickball – variable
• Stool ball – two stools
• Tee-ball
• Town ball – variable
• Vigoro – two wickets
• Wireball
• Wiffleball

Baton twirling
• Baton twirling

Acro sports
• Ballet
• Dancing
• Cheerleading
• Gymnastics

Performance sports
• Drum corps
• Marching band

Board sports

• Skateboarding
• Scootering
• Casterboarding
• Freeboard (skateboard)
• Longboarding
• Streetboarding
• Skysurfing
• Streetluge
• Snowboarding
• Mountainboarding
• Sandboarding
• Snowkiting
• Surfing
• Wakesurfing
• Bodyboarding
• Riverboarding
• Skimboarding
• Windsurfing
• Wakeboarding
• Kneeboarding
• Paddleboarding

Catch games
• Dodgeball
• Ga-ga
• Keep away
• Kin-Ball
• Newcomb ball
• Quidditch
• Rundown (a.k.a. Pickle)
• Yukigassen

Climbing

• Abseiling
• Aid climbing
• Ice climbing
• Mixed climbing
• Mountaineering
• Rock climbing
• Bouldering
• Deep-water soloing
• Sport climbing
• Traditional climbing
• Other
• Canyoning (Canyoneering)
• Coasteering
• Hiking
• Rope climbing
• Pole climbing

Cycling

• Artistic cycling
• BMX
• Cyclo-cross
• Cross-country mountain biking
• Cycle polo
• Cycle speedway
• Downhill mountain biking
• Dirt jumping
• Enduro mountain biking
• Freestyle BMX
• Hardcourt Bike Polo
• Road bicycle racing
• Track cycling
• Underwater cycling

Skibob
• Skibobbing

Unicycle

• Mountain unicycling
• Unicycling
• Unicycle basketball
• Unicycle hockey
• Unicycle trials
Combat sports: wrestling and martial arts
• Aiki-jūjutsu
• Aikido
• Jujutsu
• Judo
• Brazilian jiu-jitsu
• Sambo (martial art)
• Sumo
• Wrestling
• Amateur wrestling
• Greco-Roman wrestling
• Freestyle wrestling
• Folk wrestling
• Boli Khela
• Collar-and-elbow
• Cornish wrestling
• Dumog
• Glima
• Gouren
• Kurash
• Lancashire wrestling
• Catch wrestling
• Malla-yuddha
• Mongolian wrestling
• Pehlwani
• Professional wrestling
• Schwingen
• Shuai jiao
• Ssireum
• Varzesh-e Pahlavani
• Yağlı Güreş
• Greek wrestling

Striking

• Choi Kwang-Do
• Cockfighting
• Boxing
• Bokator
• Capoeira
• Fujian White Crane
• Karate
• Kenpō
• Kickboxing
• Lethwei
• Muay Thai
• Pradal serey
• Sanshou
• Savate
• Shaolin Kung Fu
• Sikaran
• Silat
• Subak
• Taekkyeon
• Taekwondo
• Taidō
• Tang Soo Do
• Wing Chun
• Zui quan

Mixed or hybrid
• Baguazhang
• Bando
• Bartitsu
• Bujinkan
• Hapkido
• Hwa Rang Do
• Jeet Kune Do
• Kajukenbo
• Kalaripayattu
• Krav Maga
• Kuk Sool Won
• Marine Corps Martial Arts Program
• Mixed martial arts
• Northern Praying Mantis
• Ninjutsu
• Pankration
• Pencak Silat
• Sanshou
• Shidōkan Karate
• Shōrin-ryū Shidōkan
• Shoot boxing
• Shootfighting
• Shorinji Kempo
• Systema
• T'ai chi ch'uan
• Vajra-mushti
• Vale tudo
• Vovinam
• Xing Yi Quan
• Zen Bu Kan Kempo

Weapons
• Axe throwing
• Battōjutsu
• Boffer fighting
• Eskrima
• Egyptian stick fencing
• Fencing
• Gatka
• Hojōjutsu
• Iaidō
• Iaijutsu
• Jōdō
• Jogo do pau
• Jūkendō
• Jittejutsu
• Kendo
• Kenjutsu
• Krabi–krabong
• Kung fu
• Kyūdō
• Kyūjutsu
• Modern Arnis
• Naginatajutsu
• Nguni stick-fighting
• Okinawan kobudō
• Shurikenjutsu
• Silambam
• Sōjutsu
• Sword fighting
• Wushu
• Kumdo
• Wing Chun


Skirmish
• Airsoft
• Laser tag
• Paintball


Cue sports
• Carom billiards
• Three-cushion
• Five-pins
• Balkline and straight rail
• Cushion caroms
• Four-ball (yotsudama)
• Artistic billiards
• Novuss (and cued forms of carrom)
• Pocket billiards (pool)
• Eight-ball
• Blackball (a.k.a. British eight-ball pool)
• Nine-ball
• Straight pool (14.1 continuous)
• One-pocket
• Three-ball
• Seven-ball
• Ten-ball
• Rotation
• Baseball pocket billiards
• Cribbage (pool)
• Bank pool
• Artistic pool
• Trick shot competition
• Speed pool
• Bowlliards
• Chicago
• Kelly pool
• Cutthroat
• Killer
• Russian pyramid
• Snooker
• Sinuca brasileira
• Six-red snooker
• Snooker plus
• Hybrid carom–pocket games
• English billiards
• Bottle pool
• Cowboy
• Obstacle variations
• Bagatelle
• Bar billiards
• Bumper pool
• Table Sports
• Foosball


Equine sports
• Buzkashi
• Barrel racing
• Campdrafting
• Cirit
• Charreada
• Chilean rodeo
• Cross country
• Cutting
• Dressage
• Endurance riding
• English pleasure
• Equitation
• Eventing
• Equestrian vaulting
• Gymkhana
• Harness racing
• Horse racing
• Horseball
• Hunter
• Hunter-jumpers
• Jousting
• Pato
• Reining
• Rodeo
• Show jumping
• Steeplechase
• Team penning
• Tent pegging
• Western pleasure


Fishing
• Angling
• Big-game fishing
• Casting
• Noodling
• Spearfishing
• Sport fishing
• Surf fishing
• Rock fishing
• Fly fishing
• Ice fishing

Flying disc sports

• Beach ultimate
• Disc dog
• Disc golf
• Disc golf (urban)
• Dodge disc
• Double disc court
• Flutterguts
• Freestyle
• Freestyle competition
• Goaltimate
• Guts
• Hot box
• Ultimate

Football

• Ancient games
• Chinlone
• Cuju
• Episkyros
• Harpastum
• Kemari
• Ki-o-rahi
• Marn Grook
• Woggabaliri
• Yubi lakpi
• Medieval football
• Ba game
• Caid
• Calcio Fiorentino
• Camping (game)
• Chester-le-Street
• Cnapan
• Cornish hurling
• Haxey Hood
• Knattleikr
• La soule
• Lelo burti
• Mob football
• Royal Shrovetide Football
• Uppies and Downies
• Association football
• Jorkyball
• Paralympic football
• Powerchair Football
• Reduced variants
• Five-a-side football
• Beach soccer
• Futebol de Salão
• Futsal
• Papi fut
• Indoor soccer
• Masters Football
• Street football
• Freestyle football
• Keepie uppie
• Swamp football
• Three sided football
• Australian football
• Nine-a-side footy
• Rec footy
• Metro footy
• English school games
• Eton College
• Field game
• Wall game
• Harrow football
• Gaelic football
• Ladies' Gaelic football
• Gridiron football
• American football
• Eight-man football
• Flag football
• Indoor football
• Arena football
• Nine-man football
• Six-man football
• Sprint football
• Touch football
• Canadian football
• Street football (American)
• Rugby football
• Beach rugby
• Rugby league
• Masters Rugby League
• Mod league
• Rugby league nines
• Rugby league sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch football
• Wheelchair rugby league
• Rugby union
• American flag rugby
• Mini rugby
• Rugby sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch rugby
• Rugby tens
• Snow rugby
• Hybrid codes
• Austus
• Eton wall game
• International rules football
• Samoa rules
• Speedball
• Universal football
• Volata


Golf

• Miniature golf
• Match play
• Skins game
• Speed golf
• Stroke play
• Team play
• Shotgun start

Gymnastics

• Acrobatic gymnastics
• Aerobic gymnastics
• Artistic gymnastics
• Balance beam
• Floor
• High bar
• Parallel bars
• Pommel horse
• Still rings
• Uneven bars
• Vault
• Juggling
• Rhythmic gymnastics
• Ball
• Club
• Hoop
• Ribbon
• Rope
• Rope jumping
• Slacklining
• Trampolining
• Trapeze
• Flying trapeze
• Static trapeze
• Tumbling

Handball family
• Goalball
• Hitbal
• Tchoukball
• Team handball
• Beach handball
• Czech handball
• Field handball
• Torball
• Water polo

Hunting

• Beagling
• Big game hunting
• Deer hunting
• Fox hunting
• Hare coursing
• Wolf hunting

Ice sports
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Curling
• Ice hockey
• Ringette
• Ice yachting
• Figure skating


Kite sports
• Kite buggy
• Kite fighting
• Kite landboarding
• Kitesurfing
• Parasailing
• Snow kiting
• Sport kite (Stunt kite)

Mixed discipline
• Adventure racing
• Biathlon
• Duathlon
• Decathlon
• Heptathlon
• Icosathlon
• Modern pentathlon
• Pentathlon
• Tetrathlon
• Triathlon

Orienteering family
• Geocaching
• Orienteering
• Rogaining
• Letterboxing
• Waymarking

Pilota family
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Jai alai
• Fives
• Eton Fives
• Rugby Fives
• Frisian handball
• Four square
• Gaelic handball
• Jeu de paume
• Palla
• Patball
• Valencian pilota

Racquet (or racket) sports
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Basque pelota
• Frontenis
• Xare
• Beach tennis
• Fives
• Matkot
• Padel
• Paleta Frontón
• Pelota mixteca
• Pickleball
• Platform tennis
• Qianball
• Racketlon
• Racquetball
• Racquets
• Real tennis
• Soft tennis
• Speed-ball
• Speedminton
• Squash
• Hardball squash
• Squash tennis
• Stické
• Table tennis
• Tennis
Remote control
• Model aerobatics
• RC racing
• Robot combat
• Slot car racing

Rodeo-originated
• Bullriding
• Barrel Racing
• Bronc Riding
• Saddle Bronc Riding
• Roping
• Calf Roping
• Team Roping
• Steer Wrestling
• Goat Tying

Running
• Endurance
• 5K run
• 10K run
• Cross-country running
• Half marathon
• Marathon
• Road running
• Tower running
• Ultramarathon
• Sprint
• Hurdles

Sailing / Windsurfing
• Ice yachting
• Land sailing
• Land windsurfing
• Sailing
• Windsurfing
• Kiteboarding
• Dinghy sailing

Snow sports
• Alpine skiing
• Freestyle skiing
• Nordic combined
• Nordic skiing
• Cross-country skiing
• Telemark skiing
• Ski jumping
• Ski touring
• Skijoring
• Speed skiing

Sled sports

• Bobsleigh
• Luge
• Skibobbing
• Skeleton
• Toboggan

Shooting sports
• Clay pigeon shooting
• Skeet shooting
• Trap shooting
• Sporting clays
• Target shooting
• Field target
• Fullbore target rifle
• High power rifle
• Benchrest shooting
• Metallic silhouette
• Practical shooting
• Cowboy action shooting
• Metallic silhouette shooting
Stacking
• Card stacking
• Dice stacking
• Sport stacking

Stick and ball games
• Hornussen

Hockey
• Hockey
• Ball hockey
• Bando
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Moscow broomball
• Field hockey
• Indoor field hockey
• Floorball
• Ice hockey

Ice hockey 
 • Pond hockey
• Power hockey
• Ringette
• Sledge hockey
• Underwater ice hockey
• Roller hockey
• Inline hockey
• Roller hockey (Quad)
• Skater hockey
• Rossall Hockey
• Spongee
• Street hockey
• Underwater hockey
• Unicycle hockey

Hurling and shinty
• Cammag
• Hurling
• Camogie
• Shinty
• Composite rules shinty-hurling

Lacrosse
• Lacrosse
• Box lacrosse
• Field lacrosse
• Women's lacrosse
• Intercrosse


Polo
• Polo
 • Bicycle polo
• Canoe polo
• Cowboy polo
• Elephant polo
• Horse polo
• Segway polo
• Yak polo

Street sports
• Free running
• Freestyle footbag
• Freestyle football
• Powerbocking
• Parkour
• Scootering
• Street workout

Tag games

• British bulldogs (American Eagle)
• Capture the flag
• Hana Ichi Monme
• Hide and seek
• Jugger
• Kabaddi
• Kho kho
• Kick the can
• Oztag
• Red rover
• Tag

Walking
• Hiking
• Backpacking (wilderness)
• Racewalking
• Bushwhacking
• Walking

Wall-and-ball
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Butts Up
• Chinese handball
• Fives
• Gaelic handball
• International fronton
• Jorkyball
• Racquetball
• Squash
• Squash tennis
• Suicide (game)
• Valencian frontó
• Wallball
• Wallyball

Aquatic & paddle sports
• Creeking
• Flyak
• Freeboating
• Sea kayaking
• Squirt boating
• Surf kayaking
• Whitewater kayaking

Rafting
• Rafting
• White water rafting

Rowing
• Rowing (sport)
• Gig racing
• Coastal and ocean rowing
• Surfboat
• Single scull
Other paddling sports
• Dragon boat racing
• Stand up paddle boarding
• Water polo
• Canoe polo
• Waboba

Underwater
• Underwater football
• Underwater rugby
• Underwater hockey

Competitive swimming
• Backstroke
• Breaststroke
• Butterfly stroke
• Freestyle swimming
• Individual medley
• Synchronized swimming
• Medley relay

Kindred activities
• Bifins (finswimming)
• Surface finswimming

Subsurface and recreational
• Apnoea finswimming
• Aquathlon (underwater wrestling)
• Freediving
• Immersion finswimming
• Scuba diving
• Spearfishing
• Snorkelling
• Sport diving (sport)
• Underwater hockey
• Underwater orienteering
• Underwater photography (sport)
• Underwater target shooting
Diving
• Cliff diving
• Diving

Weightlifting
• Basque traditional weightlifting
• Bodybuilding
• Highland games
• Olympic weightlifting
• Powerlifting
• Strength athletics (strongman)
• Steinstossen

Motorized sports
• Autocross (a.k.a. Slalom)
• Autograss
• Banger racing
• Board track racing
• Demolition derby
• Desert racing
• Dirt track racing
• Drag racing
• Drifting
• Folkrace
• Formula racing
• Formula Libre
• Formula Student
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Kart racing
• Land speed records
• Legends car racing
• Midget car racing
• Monster truck
• Mud bogging
• Off-road racing
• Pickup truck racing
• Production car racing
• Race of Champions
• Rally raid
• Rallycross
• Rallying
• Regularity rally
• Road racing
• Short track motor racing
• Snowmobile racing
• Sports car racing
• Sprint car racing
• Street racing
• Stock car racing
• Time attack
• Tractor pulling
• Touring car racing
• Truck racing
• Vintage racing
• Wheelstand competition

Motorboat racing
• Drag boat racing
• F1 powerboat racing
• Hydroplane racing
• Jet sprint boat racing
• Offshore powerboat racing
• Personal water craft

Motorcycle racing
• Auto Race
• Board track racing
• Cross-country rally
• Endurance racing
• Enduro
• Freestyle motocross
• Grand Prix motorcycle racing
• Grasstrack
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Ice speedway
• Indoor enduro
• Motocross
• Motorcycle drag racing
• Motorcycle speedway
• Off-roading
• Rally raid
• Road racing
• Superbike racing
• Supercross
• Supermoto
• Supersport racing
• Superside
• Track racing
• Trial
• TT racing
• Free-style moto

Marker sports
• Airsoft
• Archery
• Paintball
• Darts

Musical sports
• Color guard
• Drum corps
• Indoor percussion
• Marching band

Fantasy sports
• Quidditch
• Hunger Games(Gladiating)
• Pod Racing
• Mortal Kombat(MMA)

Other
• Stihl Timbersports Series
• Woodsman

Overlapping sports
• Tennis
• Polocrosse
• Badminton
• Polo

Skating sports
• Aggressive inline skating
• Artistic roller skating
• Figure skating
• Freestyle slalom skating
• Ice dancing
• Ice skating
• Inline speed skating
• Rinkball
• Rink hockey
• Roller derby
• Roller skating
• Short track speed skating
• Skater hockey
• Speed skating
• Synchronized skating

Freestyle skiing
• Snowboarding
• Ski flying
• Skibob
• Snowshoeing
• Skiboarding