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Ball (association football) (5856 views - Sports List)

A football, soccer ball, or association football ball is the ball used in the sport of association football. The name of the ball varies according to whether the sport is called "football", "soccer", or "association football". The ball's spherical shape, as well as its size, weight, and material composition, are specified by Law 2 of the Laws of the Game maintained by the International Football Association Board. Additional, more stringent, standards are specified by FIFA and subordinate governing bodies for the balls used in the competitions they sanction. Early footballs began as animal bladders or stomachs that would easily fall apart if kicked too much. Improvements became possible in the 19th century with the introduction of rubber and discoveries of vulcanisation by Charles Goodyear. The modern 32-panel ball design was developed in 1962 by Eigil Nielsen, and technological research continues today to develop footballs with improved performance. The 32-panel ball design was soon overcome by 24-panel balls as well as 42-panel balls, both of which improved performance compared to before, in 2007.
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Explanation by Hotspot Model

Ball (association football)

Ball (association football)

A football, soccer ball, or association football ball is the ball used in the sport of association football. The name of the ball varies according to whether the sport is called "football", "soccer", or "association football". The ball's spherical shape, as well as its size, weight, and material composition, are specified by Law 2 of the Laws of the Game maintained by the International Football Association Board. Additional, more stringent, standards are specified by FIFA and subordinate governing bodies for the balls used in the competitions they sanction.

Early footballs began as animal bladders or stomachs that would easily fall apart if kicked too much. Improvements became possible in the 19th century with the introduction of rubber and discoveries of vulcanisation by Charles Goodyear. The modern 32-panel ball design was developed in 1962 by Eigil Nielsen, and technological research continues today to develop footballs with improved performance. The 32-panel ball design was soon overcome by 24-panel balls as well as 42-panel balls, both of which improved performance compared to before, in 2007.[citation needed]

History

In 1863, the first specifications for footballs were laid down by the Football Association. Previous to this, footballs were made out of inflated leather, with later leather coverings to help footballs maintain their shapes.[1] In 1872 the specifications were revised, and these rules have been left essentially unchanged as defined by the International Football Association Board. Differences in footballs created since this rule came into effect have been to do with the material used in their creation.

Footballs have gone through a dramatic change over time. During medieval times balls were normally made from an outer shell of leather filled with cork shavings.[2] Another method of creating a ball was using animal bladders for the inside of the ball making it inflatable. However, these two styles of creating footballs made it easy for the ball to puncture and were inadequate for kicking. It was not until the 19th century that footballs developed into what a football looks like today.

Vulcanisation

In 1838, Charles Goodyear introduced the use of rubber and their discoveries of vulcanisation, which dramatically improved the football.[3] Vulcanisation is the treatment of rubber to give it certain qualities such as strength, elasticity, and resistance to solvents. Vulcanisation of rubber also helps the football resist moderate heat and cold. Vulcanisation helped create inflatable bladders that pressurise the outer panel arrangement of the football. Charles Goodyear's innovation increased the bounce ability of the ball and made it easier to kick. Most of the balls of this time had tanned leather with eighteen sections stitched together. These were arranged in six panels of three strips each.[4][5]

Reasons for improvement

During the 1900s, footballs were made out of rubber and leather which was perfect for bouncing and kicking the ball; however, when heading the football (hitting it with the player's head) it was usually painful. This problem was most probably due to water absorption of the leather from rain, which caused a considerable increase in weight, causing head or neck injury. By around 2017, this had also been associated with dementia in former players.[6][7] Another problem of early footballs was that they deteriorated quickly, as the leather used in manufacturing the footballs varied in thickness and in quality.[4]

Present developments

Elements of the football that today are tested are the deformation of the football when it is kicked or when the ball hits a surface. Two styles of footballs have been tested by the Sports Technology Research Group of Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering in Loughborough University; these two models are called the Basic FE model and the Developed FE model of the football. The basic model considered the ball as being a spherical shell with isotropic material properties. The developed model also utilised isotropic material properties but included an additional stiffer stitching seam region.

Future developments

Companies such as Umbro, Mitre, Adidas, Nike, Select and Puma are releasing footballs made out of new materials which are intended to provide more accurate flight and more power to be transferred to the football.[8][9]

Construction

Today's footballs are more complex than past footballs. Most modern footballs consist of twelve regular pentagonal and twenty regular hexagonal panels positioned in a truncated icosahedron spherical geometry.[2] Some premium-grade 32-panel balls use non-regular polygons to give a closer approximation to sphericality.[10] The inside of the football is made up of a latex bladder which enables the football to be pressurised. The ball's panel pairs are stitched along the edge; this procedure can either be performed manually or with a machine.[3] The size of a football is roughly 22 cm (8.65 inches) in diameter for a regulation size 5 ball. Rules state that a size 5 ball must be 68 to 70 cm in circumference. Averaging that to 69 cm and then dividing by π gives about 22 cm for a diameter.

The ball's weight must be in the range of 400 to 450 grams (14 to 16 oz) and inflated to a pressure of between 0.6 and 1.1 bars (8.5 and 15.6 psi) at sea level.[11]

There are a number of different types of football balls depending on the match and turf including: training footballs, match footballs, professional match footballs, beach footballs, street footballs, indoor footballs, turf balls, futsal footballs and mini/skills footballs.[12]

Suppliers

Many companies throughout the world produce footballs.[13] The earliest balls were made by local suppliers where the game was played. It is estimated that 40% of all footballs are made in Sialkot, Pakistan, with other major producers being China and India.[14]

As a response to the problems with the balls in the 1962 FIFA World Cup, Adidas created the Adidas Santiago[15] – this led to Adidas winning the contract to supply the match balls for all official FIFA and UEFA matches, which they have held since the 1970s, and also supplied match balls for the 2008 Olympic Games.[16] They also supply the ball for the UEFA Champions League which is called the Adidas Finale.

FIFA World Cup

The following footballs were used in the FIFA World Cup finals tournaments:

World Cup Ball(s) Image Manufacturer Additional information Refs
1930 Tiento
(first half)
T-model
(second half)
Two different balls were used in the final: Argentina supplied the first-half ball (the 'Tiento') and led 2–1 at the break; hosts Uruguay supplied the second-half ball (the 'T-Model' which was larger and heavier)[15] and won 4–2. [15][17]
1934 Federale 102 ECAS (Ente Centrale Approvvigionamento Sportivi), Rome [18]
1938 Allen Allen, Paris Made up of leather, consisted of 13 panels and had white cotton laces on a separate thin panel. [19]
1950 Duplo T Superball First ball to have no laces and introduce the syringe valve. [20]
1954 Swiss World Champion Kost Sport, Basel The first 18-panel ball. [17][21]
1958 Top Star Sydsvenska Läder och Remfabriken, Ängelholm (aka "Remmen" or "Sydläder") Chosen from 102 candidates in a blind test by four FIFA officials. [22][23]
1962 Crack
Top Star
Senor Custodio Zamora H., San Miguel, Chile
Remmen
The Crack was the official ball. Referee Ken Aston was unimpressed with the Chilean ball provided for the opening match, and sent for a European ball, which arrived in the second half. Various matches used different balls, with the apparent rumour the European teams didn't trust the locally produced ball[15] [15][17][22][24]
1966 Challenge 4-star Slazenger 18-panel ball in orange or yellow. Selected in a blind test at the Football Association headquarters in Soho Square. [17][25]
1970 Telstar Adidas Telstar was the first 32-panel black-and-white ball used in the FIFA World Cup finals. Only 20 were supplied by Adidas. A brown ball (Germany-Peru) and a white ball (first half of Italy-Germany) were used in some matches. [17][26]
1974 Telstar Durlast Adidas The first polyurethane coated ball, making it waterproof and resistant to wear and tear. [17]
1978 Tango Adidas [17]
1982 Tango España Adidas Similar to its predecessor the Tango the Tango España had a polyurethane coating. The difference being that it had 20 identical panels with new and improved rubberized seams. The last of all leather balls. [17]
1986 Azteca Adidas First fully synthetic FIFA World Cup ball and first hand-sewed ball [17]
1990 Etrusco Unico Adidas [17]
1994 Questra[27] Adidas [17]
1998 Tricolore Adidas First multi-coloured ball at a World Cup finals tournament. [17]
1999 (women) Icon Adidas First ball specifically created for a Women's World Cup. Technically identical to the Tricolore, but with a different visual design. [28][29]
2002 Fevernova Adidas First World Cup ball with a triangular design. The ball for the 2003 Women's World Cup was technically identical to the Fevernova, but had a different visual design.[30] [17]
2006 Teamgeist Adidas The Teamgeist is a 14-panel ball. Each match at the World Cup finals had its own individual ball, printed with the date of the match, the stadium and the team names.[16] It was replaced for the final match by the gold-coloured Teamgeist Berlin. As in 2003, the ball used for the 2007 Women's World Cup was identical in performance to the ball used in the previous year's World Cup, but with a different visual design.[31] [17]
Teamgeist Berlin
2010 Jabulani Adidas This ball has 8 panels. The ball for the final match was the gold Jo'bulani (picture on the left), which was named after "Jo'burg", a standard South African nickname for Johannesburg, site of the final game. [17][32]
Jo'bulani
2011 (women) SpeedCell Adidas Technically identical to the Jabulani, but with a different visual design. [33]
2014 Brazuca Adidas This is the first FIFA World Cup ball named by the fans. The ball has been made of six polyurethane panels which have been thermally bonded. [34]
Brazuca Final Rio
2015 (women) Conext15 Adidas Based on the technology introduced in the Brazuca. The Conext15 Final Vancouver is the first ball created specifically for a Women's World Cup Final. [35]
Conext15 Final Vancouver

UEFA European Championship

The following balls were used in the UEFA European Championship over the years:[36]

Championship Official football Manufacturer Additional information
1968 Telstar Elast Adidas This the first championship use of this ball[15]
1972 Telstar Adidas
1976 Telstar Adidas
1980 Tango Italia Adidas
1984 Tango Mundial Adidas
1988 Tango Europa Adidas
1992 Etrusco Unico Adidas This was the same ball used as in the 1990 FIFA World Cup.
1996 Questra Europa Adidas
2000 Terrestra Silverstream Adidas
2004 Roteiro Adidas
2008 Europass Adidas
2012 Tango 12 Adidas
2016 Beau Jeu Adidas Elements of the Adidas Brazuca in a new design
Fracas Design variant of the Beau Jeu

Olympic Games

The following balls were used in the football tournament of the Olympic Games (note this list is incomplete):

Olympic Games Official football Manufacturer Additional information
1984 Olympic Games Adidas Tango Sevilla Adidas
1988 Olympic Games Adidas Tango Séoul Adidas
1992 Olympic Games Adidas Etrusco Unico Adidas
1996 Olympic Games Adidas Questra Olympia[37] Adidas
2000 Olympic Games Adidas Gamarada[15] Adidas The aboriginal word for friendship, variation of the Adidas Terrestra Silverstream[15]
2004 Olympic Games Adidas Pelias Adidas
2008 Olympic Games Adidas Teamgeist 2 Magnus Moenia Adidas Variation of the Teamgeist, with Magnus Moenia meaning 'walls of the great' in Latin[38]
2012 Olympic Games Adidas The Albert Adidas Variant of the Adidas Tango 12
2016 Olympic Games Adidas Errejota Adidas Variant of the Adidas Beau Jeu

League balls

The following lists the most up-to-date balls used in various club football competitions:

Ball League Name
Voit Liga MX
Nike Ordem 3 Premier League
Adidas Torfabrik Bundesliga
Nike Ordem 3 La Liga
Derbystar Brillant APS KNVB Eredivisie
Puma King Ball Primera Division
Golty Categoría Primera A
Nike Ordem Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
Nike Ordem 3 Serie A
Adidas Pro Ligue 1 Ligue 1
Adidas Argentum Argentine Primera División
Adidas Brazuca Russian Premier League
Nike Ordem 3 Primeira Liga
Nike Incyte Süper Lig
Adidas Brazuca Superleague Greece
Nike Maxim Liga I
Mitre Delta V12 Scottish Premiership
Adidas Brazuca J1 League
Adidas Brazuca K League Classic
Puma Parva Liga
Puma Ekstraklasa
Adidas Brazuca / Major League Soccer
Nike Incyte Chinese Super League
Nike Incyte A-League
Nike Ordem 2 I-League
Mitre REVOLVE FL Welsh Premier League
Molten VG-5000A United Football League
Adidas Brazuca Eliteserien
Adidas Finale UEFA Champions League
Select Brilliant Super Belgian First Division A
Select Brilliant Super Danish Superliga
Select Brilliant Super Veikkausliiga
Select Brilliant Super Allsvenskan
Mitre Delta V12 National Premier Soccer League
Voit / National Premier Soccer League
Puma evoPower 1 S Indian Super League
Nike Ordem 3 NWSL 2016 National Women's Soccer League
Nike Ordem 3 Saudi Premier League
Dong Luc Group Galaxy UHV 2.07 V.League 1

Unicode

Unicode 5.2 introduces the glyph ⚽ (U+26BD SOCCER BALL), representable in HTML as ⚽ or ⚽.[39] The addition of this symbol follows a 2008 proposal by Karl Pentzlin.[40]

See also



This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ball (association football)", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

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Skirmish
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Football

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Golf

• Miniature golf
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Gymnastics

• Acrobatic gymnastics
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Handball family
• Goalball
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• Team handball
• Beach handball
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• Field handball
• Torball
• Water polo

Hunting

• Beagling
• Big game hunting
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• Hare coursing
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Ice sports
• Bandy
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• Broomball
• Curling
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• Ringette
• Ice yachting
• Figure skating


Kite sports
• Kite buggy
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• Kite landboarding
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• Parasailing
• Snow kiting
• Sport kite (Stunt kite)

Mixed discipline
• Adventure racing
• Biathlon
• Duathlon
• Decathlon
• Heptathlon
• Icosathlon
• Modern pentathlon
• Pentathlon
• Tetrathlon
• Triathlon

Orienteering family
• Geocaching
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• Letterboxing
• Waymarking

Pilota family
• American handball
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• Basque pelota
• Jai alai
• Fives
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• Rugby Fives
• Frisian handball
• Four square
• Gaelic handball
• Jeu de paume
• Palla
• Patball
• Valencian pilota

Racquet (or racket) sports
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Basque pelota
• Frontenis
• Xare
• Beach tennis
• Fives
• Matkot
• Padel
• Paleta Frontón
• Pelota mixteca
• Pickleball
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• Qianball
• Racketlon
• Racquetball
• Racquets
• Real tennis
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• Speed-ball
• Speedminton
• Squash
• Hardball squash
• Squash tennis
• Stické
• Table tennis
• Tennis
Remote control
• Model aerobatics
• RC racing
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Rodeo-originated
• Bullriding
• Barrel Racing
• Bronc Riding
• Saddle Bronc Riding
• Roping
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• Team Roping
• Steer Wrestling
• Goat Tying

Running
• Endurance
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• Half marathon
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• Sprint
• Hurdles

Sailing / Windsurfing
• Ice yachting
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• Land windsurfing
• Sailing
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• Kiteboarding
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Snow sports
• Alpine skiing
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• Nordic skiing
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Sled sports

• Bobsleigh
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Shooting sports
• Clay pigeon shooting
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• Sporting clays
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Stacking
• Card stacking
• Dice stacking
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Stick and ball games
• Hornussen

Hockey
• Hockey
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• Bando
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• Broomball
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• Field hockey
• Indoor field hockey
• Floorball
• Ice hockey

Ice hockey 
 • Pond hockey
• Power hockey
• Ringette
• Sledge hockey
• Underwater ice hockey
• Roller hockey
• Inline hockey
• Roller hockey (Quad)
• Skater hockey
• Rossall Hockey
• Spongee
• Street hockey
• Underwater hockey
• Unicycle hockey

Hurling and shinty
• Cammag
• Hurling
• Camogie
• Shinty
• Composite rules shinty-hurling

Lacrosse
• Lacrosse
• Box lacrosse
• Field lacrosse
• Women's lacrosse
• Intercrosse


Polo
• Polo
 • Bicycle polo
• Canoe polo
• Cowboy polo
• Elephant polo
• Horse polo
• Segway polo
• Yak polo

Street sports
• Free running
• Freestyle footbag
• Freestyle football
• Powerbocking
• Parkour
• Scootering
• Street workout

Tag games

• British bulldogs (American Eagle)
• Capture the flag
• Hana Ichi Monme
• Hide and seek
• Jugger
• Kabaddi
• Kho kho
• Kick the can
• Oztag
• Red rover
• Tag

Walking
• Hiking
• Backpacking (wilderness)
• Racewalking
• Bushwhacking
• Walking

Wall-and-ball
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Butts Up
• Chinese handball
• Fives
• Gaelic handball
• International fronton
• Jorkyball
• Racquetball
• Squash
• Squash tennis
• Suicide (game)
• Valencian frontó
• Wallball
• Wallyball

Aquatic & paddle sports
• Creeking
• Flyak
• Freeboating
• Sea kayaking
• Squirt boating
• Surf kayaking
• Whitewater kayaking

Rafting
• Rafting
• White water rafting

Rowing
• Rowing (sport)
• Gig racing
• Coastal and ocean rowing
• Surfboat
• Single scull
Other paddling sports
• Dragon boat racing
• Stand up paddle boarding
• Water polo
• Canoe polo
• Waboba

Underwater
• Underwater football
• Underwater rugby
• Underwater hockey

Competitive swimming
• Backstroke
• Breaststroke
• Butterfly stroke
• Freestyle swimming
• Individual medley
• Synchronized swimming
• Medley relay

Kindred activities
• Bifins (finswimming)
• Surface finswimming

Subsurface and recreational
• Apnoea finswimming
• Aquathlon (underwater wrestling)
• Freediving
• Immersion finswimming
• Scuba diving
• Spearfishing
• Snorkelling
• Sport diving (sport)
• Underwater hockey
• Underwater orienteering
• Underwater photography (sport)
• Underwater target shooting
Diving
• Cliff diving
• Diving

Weightlifting
• Basque traditional weightlifting
• Bodybuilding
• Highland games
• Olympic weightlifting
• Powerlifting
• Strength athletics (strongman)
• Steinstossen

Motorized sports
• Autocross (a.k.a. Slalom)
• Autograss
• Banger racing
• Board track racing
• Demolition derby
• Desert racing
• Dirt track racing
• Drag racing
• Drifting
• Folkrace
• Formula racing
• Formula Libre
• Formula Student
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Kart racing
• Land speed records
• Legends car racing
• Midget car racing
• Monster truck
• Mud bogging
• Off-road racing
• Pickup truck racing
• Production car racing
• Race of Champions
• Rally raid
• Rallycross
• Rallying
• Regularity rally
• Road racing
• Short track motor racing
• Snowmobile racing
• Sports car racing
• Sprint car racing
• Street racing
• Stock car racing
• Time attack
• Tractor pulling
• Touring car racing
• Truck racing
• Vintage racing
• Wheelstand competition

Motorboat racing
• Drag boat racing
• F1 powerboat racing
• Hydroplane racing
• Jet sprint boat racing
• Offshore powerboat racing
• Personal water craft

Motorcycle racing
• Auto Race
• Board track racing
• Cross-country rally
• Endurance racing
• Enduro
• Freestyle motocross
• Grand Prix motorcycle racing
• Grasstrack
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Ice speedway
• Indoor enduro
• Motocross
• Motorcycle drag racing
• Motorcycle speedway
• Off-roading
• Rally raid
• Road racing
• Superbike racing
• Supercross
• Supermoto
• Supersport racing
• Superside
• Track racing
• Trial
• TT racing
• Free-style moto

Marker sports
• Airsoft
• Archery
• Paintball
• Darts

Musical sports
• Color guard
• Drum corps
• Indoor percussion
• Marching band

Fantasy sports
• Quidditch
• Hunger Games(Gladiating)
• Pod Racing
• Mortal Kombat(MMA)

Other
• Stihl Timbersports Series
• Woodsman

Overlapping sports
• Tennis
• Polocrosse
• Badminton
• Polo

Skating sports
• Aggressive inline skating
• Artistic roller skating
• Figure skating
• Freestyle slalom skating
• Ice dancing
• Ice skating
• Inline speed skating
• Rinkball
• Rink hockey
• Roller derby
• Roller skating
• Short track speed skating
• Skater hockey
• Speed skating
• Synchronized skating

Freestyle skiing
• Snowboarding
• Ski flying
• Skibob
• Snowshoeing
• Skiboarding