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Boxing styles and technique (2171 views - Sports List)

Throughout the history of gloved boxing styles, techniques and strategies have changed to varying degrees. Ring conditions, promoter demands, teaching techniques, and the influence of successful boxers are some of the reasons styles and strategies have fluctuated.
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Boxing styles and technique

Boxing styles and technique

Boxing styles and technique

Licensed under Public domain (Unkown).

Throughout the history of gloved boxing styles, techniques and strategies have changed to varying degrees. Ring conditions, promoter demands, teaching techniques, and the influence of successful boxers are some of the reasons styles and strategies have fluctuated.

Boxing Styles

Primary styles

There are four generally accepted boxing styles that are used to define fighters. These are the swarmer, out-boxer, slugger, and boxer-puncher. Many boxers do not always fit into these categories, and it's not uncommon for a fighter to change their style over a period of time.


The swarmer (in-fighter, crowder) is a fighter who attempts to overwhelm his opponent by applying constant pressure — taking away an opponent's spacing and timing. Swarmers tend to have a very good bob and weave, good power, a good chin, and a tremendous punch output (resulting in a great need for stamina and conditioning). This style favors closing inside an opponent, overwhelming them with intensity and flurries of hooks and uppercuts. They tend to be fast on their feet which can make them difficult to evade for a slower fighter; or are great at cutting off the ring with precise footwork. They also tend to have a good "chin" because this style usually involves being hit with many jabs before they can maneuver inside where they are more effective.[1] Many swarmers are often either shorter fighters or fighters with shorter reaches, especially in the heavier classes, that have to get in close to be effective.


The out-boxer (out-fighter, boxer) is the opposite of the swarmer. The out-boxer seeks to maintain a gap from their opponent and fight with faster, longer range punches. Out-boxers are known for being extremely quick on their feet, which often makes up for a lack of power. Since they rely on the weaker jabs and straights (as opposed to hooks and uppercuts), they tend to win by points decisions rather than by knockout, although some out-boxers can be aggressive and effective punchers.[1] Bare-knuckle boxer Daniel Mendoza was the first to ever use this boxing style.[2] Out-boxers such as Benny Leonard and Larry Holmes can still have many notable knockouts and punching power, but usually preferred to wear down their opponents and outclass them rather than just knock them out. Out-boxers also cross over frequently with counter-punch and/or swarming techniques, such as Naseem Hamed, who used his speed on his feet to avoid injury and his precision and power to carve his opponents down. Notable out-boxers include Gabriel Elorde, Wilfred Benitez, Cecilia Brækhus, Ezzard Charles, Kid Chocolate, Billy Conn, James J. Corbett, George Dixon, Chris Eubank, Tiger Flowers, Tommy Gibbons, Holly Holm, Jack Johnson, Amir Khan, Tony Harrison, Chancellor Pharaoh Rogers, Philadelphia Jack O'Brien, Willie Pep, Barney Ross, Michael Spinks, Gene Tunney, Jersey Joe Walcott, and Pernell Whitaker.[3] The fictional boxer Apollo Creed is considered an out-boxer.

George Foreman (Slugger)


If the out-boxer represents everything elegant about boxing, the slugger (brawler, puncher) embodies everything brutal about the sport. Many sluggers tend to lack finesse in the ring, but make up for it in raw power, often able to knock almost any opponent out with a single punch.[1]

Most sluggers lack mobility in the ring and may have difficulty pursuing fighters who are fast on their feet but that's not always the case. Compared to swarmers and out-boxers, sluggers normally throw fewer but harder shots and rely less on combinations. Sluggers often throw predictable punching patterns (single punches with obvious leads) which can leave them open for counterpunching.[1] Sluggers can also be fast and unpredictable fighters, such as the case with Terry McGovern and Stanley Ketchel. While sluggers are normally considered the most crude boxers, Bob Fitzsimmons was considered by many boxing historians to be highly scientific in his slugging techniques. Because of their similar brawling tactics, swarmers and sluggers are often confused with each other.[4] Famous sluggers include Max Baer, Paul Berlenbach, Riddick Bowe, Gerry Cooney, George Foreman, Marcos Maidana, Bob Foster,[5] Gene Fullmer, Ceferino Garcia, Rocky Graziano, Arturo Gatti, Wilfredo Gomez, James J. Jeffries, Vitali Klitschko, Sonny Liston, Ron Lyle, Anne Sophie Mathis, Ricardo Mayorga, Shane Mosley, John L. Sullivan, Vonda Ward, Barbados Joe Walcott, Deontay Wilder, Diego Corrales, Ann Wolfe .[3] Fictional boxers Rocky Balboa and Clubber Lang are considered to be sluggers.


The boxer-puncher possesses many of the qualities of the out-boxer: hand speed, often an outstanding jab, combination and/or counter-punching skills, better defence and accuracy than a slugger, while possessing slugger type power. The Boxer-puncher may also be more willing to fight in an aggressive swarmer-style than an out-boxer. In general the boxer-puncher lacks the mobility and defensive expertise of the pure boxer. Boxer-punchers usually do well against out-boxers, especially if they can match their speed and mobility. They also tend to match up well against swarmers, because the extra power often discourages the swarmer's aggression. Boxer-punchers can be hard to categorize since they can be closer in style to a slugger, swarmer, or an out-boxer. Notable boxer-punchers include Oscar De La Hoya, Laila Ali, Canelo Álvarez, Alexis Arguello, Marco Antonio Barrera, Charley Burley,[6] Marcel Cerdan, Terence Crawford, Roberto Duran, Joe Gans, Marvin Hagler, Thomas Hearns, Bernard Hopkins, Eder Jofre, Roy Jones, Jr., Wladimir Klitschko, Sam Langford, Lennox Lewis, Ricardo Lopez, Joe Louis, Christy Martin, Carlos Monzon, Archie Moore, Jose Napoles, Sugar Ray Robinson, Sandy Saddler, Carlos Zarate Serna, Freddie Steele,[7] James Toney, Errol Spence Jr., Jermell Charlo, Jermall Charlo, Felix Trinidad, Ike Williams, Jimmy Wilde, and Tony Zale, Mikey Garcia .[3][8]

Sub-styles and other categories


A counterpuncher utilizes techniques that require the opposing boxer to make a mistake, and then capitalizing on that mistake. A skilled counterpuncher can utilize such techniques as winning rounds with the jab or psychological tactics to entice an opponent to fall into an aggressive style that will exhaust him and leave him open for counterpunches. For these reasons this form of boxing balances defense and offense but can lead to severe damage if the boxer who utilizes this technique has bad reflexes or isn't quick enough. Notable counterpunchers are Chancellor Pharaoh Rogers,Canelo Álvarez, Charley Burley, Marvin Hagler, Andre Ward, Bernard Hopkins, Vitali Klitschko, Evander Holyfield, Hector Camacho, Juan Manuel Márquez, Archie Moore, Salvador Sanchez, Dick Tiger, Guillermo Rigondeaux, Azumah Nelson, Tony Canzoneri, Terence Crawford, Wilfred Benitez, and James Toney. Fictional boxer Little Mac is also a counterpuncher.


A southpaw fights with a left‐handed fighting stance as opposed to an orthodox fighter who fights right‐handed. Orthodox fighters lead and jab from their left side, and southpaw fighters will jab and lead from their right side. Orthodox fighters hook more with their left and cross more with their right, and vice versa for southpaw fighters. Some naturally right-handed fighters (such as Marvin Hagler and Michael Moorer)[9][10] have converted to southpaw in the past to offset their opponents. Famous southpaws include Melio Bettina, Ruslan Chagaev, Tiger Flowers, Hagler, Naseem Hamed, Zab Judah, Moorer, Manny Pacquiao, Errol Spence Jr., Sergio Martínez, Tarver, Pernell Whitaker, Joe Calzaghe, Hector Camacho and Winky Wright. In Rocky (film series), Rocky Balboa and Clubber Lang are southpaws, as well as Mason Dixon who is played by actual light‐heavyweight southpaw Antonio Tarver. Fictional character Billy "The Great" Hope used a southpaw uppercut to knock down Miguel Escobar in his comeback fight in the film Southpaw. Fictional Russian boxer Soda Popinski also uses a southpaw stance.


A switch-hitter switches back and forth between a right-handed (orthodox) stance and a left-handed (southpaw) stance on purpose to confuse their opponents in a fight. Right-handed boxers would train in the left-handed (southpaw) stance, while southpaws would train in a right-handed (orthodox) stance, gaining the ability to switch back and forth after much training. A truly ambidextrous boxer can naturally fight in the switch-hitter style without as much training. Notable switch-hitters include Andre Ward, Terence Crawford, Kelly Pavlik, Marvin Hagler, Carmen Basilio, Leonard Bundu, Marco Antonio Barrera, Winky Wright, Joe Calzaghe, Michael Moorer, Miguel Cotto, Nonito Donaire and Tyson Fury.

Equipment and safety

Boxing techniques utilize very forceful strikes with the hand. There are many bones in the hand, and striking surfaces without proper technique can cause serious hand injuries. Today, most trainers do not allow boxers to train and spar without hand/wrist wraps and gloves. Handwraps are used to secure the bones in the hand, and the gloves are used to protect the hands from blunt injury, allowing boxers to throw punches with more force than if they did not utilize them.

Headgear protects against cuts, scrapes, and swelling, but does not protect very well against concussions. Headgear does not sufficiently protect the brain from the jarring that occurs when the head is struck with great force. Also, most boxers aim for the chin on opponents, and the chin is usually not padded. Thus, a powerpunch can do a lot of damage to a boxer, and even a jab that connects to the chin can cause damage, regardless of whether or not headgear is being utilized.


In a fully upright stance, the boxer stands with the legs shoulder-width apart and the rear foot a half-step in front of the lead man. Right-handed or orthodox boxers lead with the left foot and fist (for most penetration power). Both feet are parallel, and the right heel is off the ground. The lead (left) fist is held vertically about six inches in front of the face at eye level. The rear (right) fist is held beside the chin and the elbow tucked against the ribcage to protect the body. The chin is tucked into the chest to avoid punches to the jaw which commonly cause knock-outs and is often kept slightly off-center. Wrists are slightly bent to avoid damage when punching and the elbows are kept tucked in to protect the ribcage. Some boxers fight from a crouch, leaning forward and keeping their feet closer together. The stance described is considered the "textbook" stance and fighters are encouraged to change it around once it's been mastered as a base. Case in point, many fast fighters have their hands down and have almost exaggerated footwork, while brawlers or bully fighters tend to slowly stalk their opponents. In order to retain their stance boxers take 'the first step in any direction with the foot already leading in that direction.'[11]

Different stances allow for bodyweight to be differently positioned and emphasised; this may in turn alter how powerfully and explosively a type of punch can be delivered. For instance, a crouched stance allows for the bodyweight to be positioned further forward over the lead left leg. If a lead left hook is thrown from this position, it will produce a powerful springing action in the lead leg and produce a more explosive punch. This springing action could not be generated effectively, for this punch, if an upright stance was used or if the bodyweight was positioned predominately over the back leg.[12] Mike Tyson was a keen practitioner of a crouched stance and this style of power punching. The preparatory positioning of the bodyweight over the bent lead leg is also known as an isometric preload.

Left-handed or southpaw fighters use a mirror image of the orthodox stance, which can create problems for orthodox fighters unaccustomed to receiving jabs, hooks, or crosses from the opposite side. The southpaw stance, conversely, is vulnerable to a straight right hand.

North American fighters tend to favor a more balanced stance, facing the opponent almost squarely, while many European fighters stand with their torso turned more to the side. The positioning of the hands may also vary, as some fighters prefer to have both hands raised in front of the face, risking exposure to body shots.


The four basic punches in modern boxing are the jab, the cross, the hook, and the uppercut.

  • Jab — a quick, straight punch thrown with the lead hand from the guard position. The jab extends from the side of the torso and typically does not pass in front of it. It is accompanied by a small, clockwise rotation of the torso and hips, while the fist rotates 90 degrees, becoming horizontal upon impact. As the punch reaches full extension, the lead shoulder is brought up to guard the chin. The rear hand remains next to the face to guard the jaw. After making contact with the target, the lead hand is retracted quickly to resume a guard position in front of the face. The jab is the most important punch in a boxer's arsenal because it provides a fair amount of its own cover and it leaves the least amount of space for a counter‐punch from the opponent. It has the longest reach of any punch and does not require commitment or large weight transfers. Due to its relatively weak power, the jab is often used as a tool to gauge distances, probe an opponent's defenses, and set up heavier, more powerful punches. A half‐step may be added, moving the entire body into the punch, for additional power. Despite its lack of power, the jab is the most important punch in boxing, usable not only for attack but also defense, as a good quick, stiff jab can interrupt a much more powerful punch, such as a hook or uppercut.
  • Cross — a powerful straight punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the rear hand is thrown from the chin, crossing the body and traveling towards the target in a straight line. The rear shoulder is thrust forward and finishes just touching the outside of the chin. At the same time, the lead hand is retracted and tucked against the face to protect the inside of the chin. For additional power, the torso and hips are rotated counter‐clockwise as the cross is thrown. Weight is also transferred from the rear foot to the lead foot, resulting in the rear heel turning outwards as it acts as a fulcrum for the transfer of weight. Like the jab, a half‐step forward may be added. After the cross is thrown, the hand is retracted quickly and the guard position resumed. It can be used to counterpunch a jab, aiming for the opponent's head (or a counter to a cross aimed at the body) or to set up a hook. The cross can also follow a jab, creating the classic "one‐two combo." The cross is also called a "straight" or "right."
  • Hook — a semi‐circular punch thrown with the lead hand to the side of the opponent's head. From the guard position, the elbow is drawn back with a horizontal fist (knuckles pointing forward) and the elbow bent. The rear hand is tucked firmly against the jaw to protect the chin. The torso and hips are rotated clockwise, propelling the fist through a tight, clockwise arc across the front of the body and connecting with the target. At the same time, the lead foot pivots clockwise, turning the left heel outwards. Upon contact, the hook's circular path ends abruptly and the lead hand is pulled quickly back into the guard position. A hook may also target the lower body (the classic Mexican hook to the liver) and this technique is sometimes called the "rip" to distinguish it from the conventional hook to the head. The hook may also be thrown with the rear hand.
  • Uppercut — a vertical, rising punch thrown with the rear hand. From the guard position, the torso shifts slightly to the right, the rear hand drops below the level of the opponent's chest and the knees are bent slightly. From this position, the rear hand is thrust upwards in a rising arc towards the opponent's chin or torso. At the same time, the knees push upwards quickly and the torso and hips rotate counter‐clockwise and the rear heel turns outward, mimicking the body movement of the cross. The strategic utility of the uppercut depends on its ability to "lift" the opponent's body, setting it off‐balance for successive attacks.

Less common punches

  • Bolo punch : Occasionally seen in Olympic boxing, the bolo is an arm punch which owes its power to the shortening of a circular arc rather than to transference of body weight; it tends to have more of an effect due to the surprise of the odd angle it lands at rather than the actual power of the punch. Few professional boxers have used the bolo-punch to great effect, including former welterweight champions Sugar Ray Leonard, and Kid Gavilán,. Middleweight champion Ceferino Garcia is regarded as the inventor of the bolo punch.[citation needed]
  • Overhand right : The overhand right has a looping circular arc as it is thrown over-the-shoulder with the palm facing away from the boxer. It is especially popular with smaller stature boxers trying to reach taller opponents. Boxers who have used this punch consistently and effectively include former heavyweight And Super Featherweight champions Chancellor Pharaoh Rogers, Rocky Marciano and Tim Witherspoon, as well as MMA champions Chuck Liddell, Dan Henderson, and Fedor Emelianenko. The overhand right has become a popular weapon in other tournaments that involve fist striking.
  • Check hook : A check hook is employed to prevent aggressive boxers from lunging in. There are two parts to the check hook. The first part consists of a regular hook. As the opponent lunges in, the boxer should throw the hook and pivot on his left foot and swing his right foot 180 degrees around. If executed correctly, the aggressive boxer will lunge in and sail harmlessly past his opponent like a bull missing a matador. was displayed by Chancellor Pharaoh Rogers,


  • Bob and Weave — bobbing moves the head laterally and beneath an incoming punch. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer bends the legs quickly and simultaneously shifts the body either slightly right or left. Once the punch has been evaded, the boxer "weaves" back to an upright position, emerging on either the outside or inside of the opponent's still-extended arm. To move outside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the outside". To move inside the opponent's extended arm is called "bobbing to the inside".
  • Parry/Block — parrying or blocking uses the boxer's hands as defensive tools to deflect incoming attacks. As the opponent's punch arrives, the boxer delivers a sharp, lateral, open-handed blow to the opponent's wrist or forearm, redirecting the punch.
  • The Cover‐up – covering up is the last opportunity to avoid an incoming strike to an unprotected face or body. Generally speaking, the hands are held high to protect the head and chin and the forearms are tucked against the torso to impede body shots. When protecting the body, the boxer rotates the hips and lets incoming punches "roll" off the guard. To protect the head, the boxer presses both fists against the front of the face with the forearms parallel and facing outwards. This type of guard is weak against attacks from below.
  • The Clinch – clinching is a rough form of grappling and occurs when the distance between both fighters has closed and straight punches cannot be employed. In this situation, the boxer attempts to hold or "tie up" the opponent's hands so he is unable to throw hooks or uppercuts. To perform a clinch, the boxer loops both hands around the outside of the opponent's shoulders, scooping back under the forearms to grasp the opponent's arms tightly against his own body. In this position, the opponent's arms are pinned and cannot be used to attack. Clinching is a temporary match state and is quickly dissipated by the referee.

There are 3 main defensive positions (guards or styles) used in boxing:

All fighters have their own variations to these styles. Some fighters may have their guard higher for more head protection while others have their guard lower to provide better protection against body punches. Many fighters don't strictly use a single position, but rather adapt to the situation when choosing a certain position to protect them.[1]

  • Peek-a-Boo — a defense style often used by a fighter where the hands are placed in front of the boxer's face,[13] like in the babies' game of the same name. It offers extra protection to the face and makes it easier to jab the opponent's face. Peek-a-Boo boxing was developed by legendary trainer Cus D'Amato. Peek‐a‐Boo boxing utilizes relaxed hands with the forearms in front of the face and the fist at nose‐eye level. Other unique features includes side to side head movements, bobbing, weaving and blind siding your opponent. The number system e.g. 3-2-3-Body-head-body or 3-3-2 Body-Body-head is drilled with the stationary dummy and on the bag until the fighter is able to punch by rapid combinations with what D'Amato called "bad intentions." The theory behind the style is that when combined with effective bobbing and weaving head movement, the fighter has a very strong defense and becomes more elusive, able to throw hooks and uppercuts with great effectiveness. Also it allows swift neck movements as well quick duckings and bad returning damage, usually by rising uppercuts or even rising hooks.[1] Since it is a defense designed for close range fighting, it is mainly used by in-fighters (one exception is Winky Wright, who was mostly an out-fighter). Bobo Olson was the first known champion to use this as a defense. Famous fighters who use the Peek-a-Boo style include Olson,[14] Floyd Patterson, José Torres,[14] Mike Tyson, and Wright.
  • Cross-armed — the forearms are placed on top of each other horizontally in front of the face with the glove of one arm being on the top of the elbow of the other arm. This style is greatly varied when the back hand (right for an orthodox fighter and left for a southpaw) rises vertically. This style is the most effective for reducing head damage. The only head punch that a fighter is susceptible to is a jab to the top of the head. The body is open, but most fighters who use this style bend and lean to protect the body, but while upright and unaltered the body is there to be hit. This position is very difficult to counterpunch from, but virtually eliminates all head damage. Fighters that use this defense include George Foreman (later in his career), Joe Frazier, Gene Fullmer, and Archie Moore.
  • Philly Shell or Shoulder Roll — this is actually a variation of the cross-arm defense. The lead arm (left for an orthodox fighter and right for a southpaw) is placed across the torso usually somewhere in between the belly button and chest and the lead hand rests on the opposite side of the fighter's torso. The back hand is placed on the side of the face (right side for orthodox fighters and left side for southpaws). The lead shoulder is brought in tight against the side of the face (left side for orthodox fighters and right side for southpaws). This style is used by fighters who like to counterpunch. To execute this guard a fighter must be very athletic and experienced. This style is so effective for counterpunching because it allows fighters to slip punches by rotating and dipping their upper body and causing blows to glance off the fighter. After the punch glances off, the fighter's back hand is in perfect position to hit their out‐of‐position opponent. The shoulder lean is used in this stance. To execute the shoulder lean a fighter rotates and ducks (to the right for orthodox fighters and to the left for southpaws) when their opponents punch is coming towards them and then rotates back towards their opponent while their opponent is bringing their hand back. The fighter will throw a punch with their back hand as they are rotating towards their undefended opponent. The weakness to this style is that when a fighter is stationary and not rotating they are open to be hit so a fighter must be athletic and well conditioned to effectively execute this style. To beat this style, fighters like to jab their opponents shoulder causing the shoulder and arm to be in pain and to demobilize that arm. Fighters that used this defense include Chancellor Pharaoh Rogers., Floyd Mayweather Jr., Ken Norton, Sugar Ray Robinson, James Toney, Pernell Whitaker.Cc
  1. ^ a b c d e f "Boxing Styles". argosummitboxing.com. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05.
  2. ^ The Development of the Close & “Peekaboo” Guards in Boxing
  3. ^ a b c "Boxing: It's a Style Thing!".
  4. ^ Cox, Monte D. ""Terrible" Terry McGovern...A Little Like Tyson". Cox's Corner – via coxscorner.tripod.com.
  5. ^ "The Bob Foster Story". Archived from the original on 2006-11-25. Retrieved 2013-01-22.
  6. ^ "Black Dynamite Charles Duane Burley".
  7. ^ John D. McCallum, The Encyclopedia or Word Boxing Champions: p.151-155, 1975, Chilton Book Company
  8. ^ "Tony Zale".
  9. ^ "Marvin Hagler – The Marvelous One!".
  10. ^ "Michael Moorer".
  11. ^ Dempsey, Jack, 'Footwork' in Championship Fighting Explosive Punching and Aggressive Defense, 1950
  12. ^ Dempsey, Jack, 'Stance' in Championship Fighting Explosive Punching and Aggressive Defense, 1950
  13. ^ "The Science of Mike Tyson and Elements of Peek-A-Boo: part II". SugarBoxing. 2014-02-01. Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2014-09-18.
  14. ^ a b John D. McCallum, The Encyclopedia or Word Boxing Champions: p.121-122, 1975, Chilton Book Company

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Boxing styles and technique", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0. There is a list of all authors in Wikipedia

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• Kumdo
• Wing Chun

• Airsoft
• Laser tag
• Paintball

Cue sports
• Carom billiards
• Three-cushion
• Five-pins
• Balkline and straight rail
• Cushion caroms
• Four-ball (yotsudama)
• Artistic billiards
• Novuss (and cued forms of carrom)
• Pocket billiards (pool)
• Eight-ball
• Blackball (a.k.a. British eight-ball pool)
• Nine-ball
• Straight pool (14.1 continuous)
• One-pocket
• Three-ball
• Seven-ball
• Ten-ball
• Rotation
• Baseball pocket billiards
• Cribbage (pool)
• Bank pool
• Artistic pool
• Trick shot competition
• Speed pool
• Bowlliards
• Chicago
• Kelly pool
• Cutthroat
• Killer
• Russian pyramid
• Snooker
• Sinuca brasileira
• Six-red snooker
• Snooker plus
• Hybrid carom–pocket games
• English billiards
• Bottle pool
• Cowboy
• Obstacle variations
• Bagatelle
• Bar billiards
• Bumper pool
• Table Sports
• Foosball

Equine sports
• Buzkashi
• Barrel racing
• Campdrafting
• Cirit
• Charreada
• Chilean rodeo
• Cross country
• Cutting
• Dressage
• Endurance riding
• English pleasure
• Equitation
• Eventing
• Equestrian vaulting
• Gymkhana
• Harness racing
• Horse racing
• Horseball
• Hunter
• Hunter-jumpers
• Jousting
• Pato
• Reining
• Rodeo
• Show jumping
• Steeplechase
• Team penning
• Tent pegging
• Western pleasure

• Angling
• Big-game fishing
• Casting
• Noodling
• Spearfishing
• Sport fishing
• Surf fishing
• Rock fishing
• Fly fishing
• Ice fishing

Flying disc sports

• Beach ultimate
• Disc dog
• Disc golf
• Disc golf (urban)
• Dodge disc
• Double disc court
• Flutterguts
• Freestyle
• Freestyle competition
• Goaltimate
• Guts
• Hot box
• Ultimate


• Ancient games
• Chinlone
• Cuju
• Episkyros
• Harpastum
• Kemari
• Ki-o-rahi
• Marn Grook
• Woggabaliri
• Yubi lakpi
• Medieval football
• Ba game
• Caid
• Calcio Fiorentino
• Camping (game)
• Chester-le-Street
• Cnapan
• Cornish hurling
• Haxey Hood
• Knattleikr
• La soule
• Lelo burti
• Mob football
• Royal Shrovetide Football
• Uppies and Downies
• Association football
• Jorkyball
• Paralympic football
• Powerchair Football
• Reduced variants
• Five-a-side football
• Beach soccer
• Futebol de Salão
• Futsal
• Papi fut
• Indoor soccer
• Masters Football
• Street football
• Freestyle football
• Keepie uppie
• Swamp football
• Three sided football
• Australian football
• Nine-a-side footy
• Rec footy
• Metro footy
• English school games
• Eton College
• Field game
• Wall game
• Harrow football
• Gaelic football
• Ladies' Gaelic football
• Gridiron football
• American football
• Eight-man football
• Flag football
• Indoor football
• Arena football
• Nine-man football
• Six-man football
• Sprint football
• Touch football
• Canadian football
• Street football (American)
• Rugby football
• Beach rugby
• Rugby league
• Masters Rugby League
• Mod league
• Rugby league nines
• Rugby league sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch football
• Wheelchair rugby league
• Rugby union
• American flag rugby
• Mini rugby
• Rugby sevens
• Tag rugby
• Touch rugby
• Rugby tens
• Snow rugby
• Hybrid codes
• Austus
• Eton wall game
• International rules football
• Samoa rules
• Speedball
• Universal football
• Volata


• Miniature golf
• Match play
• Skins game
• Speed golf
• Stroke play
• Team play
• Shotgun start


• Acrobatic gymnastics
• Aerobic gymnastics
• Artistic gymnastics
• Balance beam
• Floor
• High bar
• Parallel bars
• Pommel horse
• Still rings
• Uneven bars
• Vault
• Juggling
• Rhythmic gymnastics
• Ball
• Club
• Hoop
• Ribbon
• Rope
• Rope jumping
• Slacklining
• Trampolining
• Trapeze
• Flying trapeze
• Static trapeze
• Tumbling

Handball family
• Goalball
• Hitbal
• Tchoukball
• Team handball
• Beach handball
• Czech handball
• Field handball
• Torball
• Water polo


• Beagling
• Big game hunting
• Deer hunting
• Fox hunting
• Hare coursing
• Wolf hunting

Ice sports
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Curling
• Ice hockey
• Ringette
• Ice yachting
• Figure skating

Kite sports
• Kite buggy
• Kite fighting
• Kite landboarding
• Kitesurfing
• Parasailing
• Snow kiting
• Sport kite (Stunt kite)

Mixed discipline
• Adventure racing
• Biathlon
• Duathlon
• Decathlon
• Heptathlon
• Icosathlon
• Modern pentathlon
• Pentathlon
• Tetrathlon
• Triathlon

Orienteering family
• Geocaching
• Orienteering
• Rogaining
• Letterboxing
• Waymarking

Pilota family
• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Jai alai
• Fives
• Eton Fives
• Rugby Fives
• Frisian handball
• Four square
• Gaelic handball
• Jeu de paume
• Palla
• Patball
• Valencian pilota

Racquet (or racket) sports
• Badminton
• Ball badminton
• Basque pelota
• Frontenis
• Xare
• Beach tennis
• Fives
• Matkot
• Padel
• Paleta Frontón
• Pelota mixteca
• Pickleball
• Platform tennis
• Qianball
• Racketlon
• Racquetball
• Racquets
• Real tennis
• Soft tennis
• Speed-ball
• Speedminton
• Squash
• Hardball squash
• Squash tennis
• Stické
• Table tennis
• Tennis
Remote control
• Model aerobatics
• RC racing
• Robot combat
• Slot car racing

• Bullriding
• Barrel Racing
• Bronc Riding
• Saddle Bronc Riding
• Roping
• Calf Roping
• Team Roping
• Steer Wrestling
• Goat Tying

• Endurance
• 5K run
• 10K run
• Cross-country running
• Half marathon
• Marathon
• Road running
• Tower running
• Ultramarathon
• Sprint
• Hurdles

Sailing / Windsurfing
• Ice yachting
• Land sailing
• Land windsurfing
• Sailing
• Windsurfing
• Kiteboarding
• Dinghy sailing

Snow sports
• Alpine skiing
• Freestyle skiing
• Nordic combined
• Nordic skiing
• Cross-country skiing
• Telemark skiing
• Ski jumping
• Ski touring
• Skijoring
• Speed skiing

Sled sports

• Bobsleigh
• Luge
• Skibobbing
• Skeleton
• Toboggan

Shooting sports
• Clay pigeon shooting
• Skeet shooting
• Trap shooting
• Sporting clays
• Target shooting
• Field target
• Fullbore target rifle
• High power rifle
• Benchrest shooting
• Metallic silhouette
• Practical shooting
• Cowboy action shooting
• Metallic silhouette shooting
• Card stacking
• Dice stacking
• Sport stacking

Stick and ball games
• Hornussen

• Hockey
• Ball hockey
• Bando
• Bandy
• Rink bandy
• Broomball
• Moscow broomball
• Field hockey
• Indoor field hockey
• Floorball
• Ice hockey

Ice hockey 
 • Pond hockey
• Power hockey
• Ringette
• Sledge hockey
• Underwater ice hockey
• Roller hockey
• Inline hockey
• Roller hockey (Quad)
• Skater hockey
• Rossall Hockey
• Spongee
• Street hockey
• Underwater hockey
• Unicycle hockey

Hurling and shinty
• Cammag
• Hurling
• Camogie
• Shinty
• Composite rules shinty-hurling

• Lacrosse
• Box lacrosse
• Field lacrosse
• Women's lacrosse
• Intercrosse

• Polo
 • Bicycle polo
• Canoe polo
• Cowboy polo
• Elephant polo
• Horse polo
• Segway polo
• Yak polo

Street sports
• Free running
• Freestyle footbag
• Freestyle football
• Powerbocking
• Parkour
• Scootering
• Street workout

Tag games

• British bulldogs (American Eagle)
• Capture the flag
• Hana Ichi Monme
• Hide and seek
• Jugger
• Kabaddi
• Kho kho
• Kick the can
• Oztag
• Red rover
• Tag

• Hiking
• Backpacking (wilderness)
• Racewalking
• Bushwhacking
• Walking

• American handball
• Australian handball
• Basque pelota
• Butts Up
• Chinese handball
• Fives
• Gaelic handball
• International fronton
• Jorkyball
• Racquetball
• Squash
• Squash tennis
• Suicide (game)
• Valencian frontó
• Wallball
• Wallyball

Aquatic & paddle sports
• Creeking
• Flyak
• Freeboating
• Sea kayaking
• Squirt boating
• Surf kayaking
• Whitewater kayaking

• Rafting
• White water rafting

• Rowing (sport)
• Gig racing
• Coastal and ocean rowing
• Surfboat
• Single scull
Other paddling sports
• Dragon boat racing
• Stand up paddle boarding
• Water polo
• Canoe polo
• Waboba

• Underwater football
• Underwater rugby
• Underwater hockey

Competitive swimming
• Backstroke
• Breaststroke
• Butterfly stroke
• Freestyle swimming
• Individual medley
• Synchronized swimming
• Medley relay

Kindred activities
• Bifins (finswimming)
• Surface finswimming

Subsurface and recreational
• Apnoea finswimming
• Aquathlon (underwater wrestling)
• Freediving
• Immersion finswimming
• Scuba diving
• Spearfishing
• Snorkelling
• Sport diving (sport)
• Underwater hockey
• Underwater orienteering
• Underwater photography (sport)
• Underwater target shooting
• Cliff diving
• Diving

• Basque traditional weightlifting
• Bodybuilding
• Highland games
• Olympic weightlifting
• Powerlifting
• Strength athletics (strongman)
• Steinstossen

Motorized sports
• Autocross (a.k.a. Slalom)
• Autograss
• Banger racing
• Board track racing
• Demolition derby
• Desert racing
• Dirt track racing
• Drag racing
• Drifting
• Folkrace
• Formula racing
• Formula Libre
• Formula Student
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Kart racing
• Land speed records
• Legends car racing
• Midget car racing
• Monster truck
• Mud bogging
• Off-road racing
• Pickup truck racing
• Production car racing
• Race of Champions
• Rally raid
• Rallycross
• Rallying
• Regularity rally
• Road racing
• Short track motor racing
• Snowmobile racing
• Sports car racing
• Sprint car racing
• Street racing
• Stock car racing
• Time attack
• Tractor pulling
• Touring car racing
• Truck racing
• Vintage racing
• Wheelstand competition

Motorboat racing
• Drag boat racing
• F1 powerboat racing
• Hydroplane racing
• Jet sprint boat racing
• Offshore powerboat racing
• Personal water craft

Motorcycle racing
• Auto Race
• Board track racing
• Cross-country rally
• Endurance racing
• Enduro
• Freestyle motocross
• Grand Prix motorcycle racing
• Grasstrack
• Hillclimbing
• Ice racing
• Ice speedway
• Indoor enduro
• Motocross
• Motorcycle drag racing
• Motorcycle speedway
• Off-roading
• Rally raid
• Road racing
• Superbike racing
• Supercross
• Supermoto
• Supersport racing
• Superside
• Track racing
• Trial
• TT racing
• Free-style moto

Marker sports
• Airsoft
• Archery
• Paintball
• Darts

Musical sports
• Color guard
• Drum corps
• Indoor percussion
• Marching band

Fantasy sports
• Quidditch
• Hunger Games(Gladiating)
• Pod Racing
• Mortal Kombat(MMA)

• Stihl Timbersports Series
• Woodsman

Overlapping sports
• Tennis
• Polocrosse
• Badminton
• Polo

Skating sports
• Aggressive inline skating
• Artistic roller skating
• Figure skating
• Freestyle slalom skating
• Ice dancing
• Ice skating
• Inline speed skating
• Rinkball
• Rink hockey
• Roller derby
• Roller skating
• Short track speed skating
• Skater hockey
• Speed skating
• Synchronized skating

Freestyle skiing
• Snowboarding
• Ski flying
• Skibob
• Snowshoeing
• Skiboarding